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Table 5 Predicted change in pain and anxiety scores a

From: The effectiveness of integrative medicine interventions on pain and anxiety in cardiovascular inpatients: a practice-based research evaluation

   Base model Model including treatment types
Outcome   Marginal effect SE Marginal effect SE
Pain      
  Age 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01
  Female -0.23 0.13 -0.23 0.13
  Race (Reference = White)     
    African American -0.35 0.21 -0.35 0.21
    Asian -0.35 0.25 -0.34 0.25
    Other 0.25 0.29 0.24 0.29
  Circulatory System Disease (Reference = Other)     
    Arteries, Arterioles & Capillaries -0.10 0.12 -0.11 0.12
    Cerebrovascular 0.07 0.11 0.07 0.11
    Hypertension 0.06 0.10 0.06 0.10
    Ischemic Heart Disease -0.05 0.10 -0.05 0.10
    Pulmonary Circulation 0.17 0.13 0.17 0.13
  Severity (Reference = Minor)     
    Moderate -0.24 0.14 -0.24 0.14
    Major -0.42b 0.19 -0.43b 0.19
    Extreme -0.45 0.27 -0.46 0.28
  Treatment Type (Reference = BW)     
    MBE . . 0.22 0.13
    TCM . . -0.02 0.08
    Combination . . -0.03 0.07
  Inverse Mills Ratio -0.21 0.43 -0.22 0.43
  Constant -1.22 0.72 -1.23 0.72
Anxiety      
  Age 0.03b 0.01 0.03b 0.01
  Female -0.56b 0.28 -0.62b 0.28
  Race(Reference = White)     
    African American -0.06 0.36 -0.02 0.36
    Asian -0.12 0.37 -0.10 0.38
    Other 0.86 0.52 0.95 0.53
  Circulatory System Disease (Reference = Other)     
    Arteries, Arterioles & Capillaries -0.08 0.18 -0.05 0.18
    Cerebrovascular 0.27 0.19 0.27 0.19
    Hypertension 0.02 0.11 0.01 0.11
    Ischemic Heart Disease -0.04 0.11 0.00 0.12
    Pulmonary Circulation -0.05 0.20 -0.08 0.20
  Severity (Reference = Minor)     
    Moderate -0.43 0.27 -0.50 0.27
    Major -0.89b 0.44 -1.08b 0.45
    Extreme -0.91 0.66 -1.19 0.66
  Treatment Type (Reference = BW)     
    MBE . . -0.67c 0.16
    TCM . . -0.42b 0.20
    Combination . . -0.34c 0.10
  Inverse Mills Ratio -1.04 0.76 -1.26 0.77
  Constant -1.12 1.41 -0.38 1.42
  1. aMarginal effect of covariates on the change in pain and anxiety scores after administration of IM therapy from a Heckman selection model. Marital status and health insurance were used as exclusion restrictions in the selection-equation. Hospital admissions for which all change in pain or anxiety score were missing were excluded from this analysis. The pain sample consisted of 54,163 admissions, of whom 3,457 utilized IM therapies; the anxiety sample consisted of 52,572 admissions, of whom 1,866 utilized IM therapies. BW indicates bodywork; MBE, mind-body and energy therapies; TCM, traditional Chinese medicine.
  2. bp < 0.05.
  3. cp < 0.01.