Honey, a sweet and viscous fluid, has medicinal properties at both preventive and curative levels. Since ancient times it has been known to have anti-bacterial, antioxidant and wound-healing constituents . Moreover, honey also exhibits anti-tumor activity, with pronounced anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects , and anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, immune-stimulant, anti-ulcer and wound-/burn-healing properties . Various signalling pathways mediated by honey and its major components (such as chrysin, pinobanksin, vitamin C, catalase, and pinocembrin) have been unravelled recently, including stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), inhibition-cell proliferation, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest, as well as lipoprotein oxidation . Apart from the components mentioned above, honey also contains a variety of other biologically active compounds, such as flavonoids, vitamins, and antioxidants, as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which make it an extraordinary food, possessing potent and varied medical properties .
Honey is produced from many different floral sources, and its biochemical and pharmacological activities vary depending on its origin and processing. In Malaysia, varieties of honey may be divided into floral honey (such as honey harvested from trees including Gelam, Tualang, Pineapple, and Coconut) and honeydew honey (for instance Acacia honey) . For this study, a floral honey (Gelam honey, or GH) and a honey from honeydew honey (Acacia honey, or AH) were selected. They are both widely produced and consumed in Malaysia, and both exhibit antioxidant activity . GH is produced by Apis mellifera, a honey bee, from Melalucae cajupati tress, particularly from the eastern part of Malaysia and harvest widely from the forest. It contains high levels of polyphenols and of non-phenol contents, compared to pineapple and coconut honey. AH is also produced by A. mellifera, but from the Acacia magnium plants, especially in north Malaysia and collected from a beekeeping farm. It also contains phenolic acids and flavonoids [8, 9].
Rigorous research studies have been conducted on honey; however, only a few studies to date have taken cognizance of the possible consumption effects of GH and AH. For instance, Kassim et al. (2012)  documented acute analysis of GH on mice (Balb/c mice) and New Zealand white rabbits at doses of 10, 60, 300, and 600 mg/kg, diluted with saline. However, an acute study of GH and AH with doses of 2000 mg/kg body weight on Sprague Dawley rats according to OECD guideline has not been carried out, even though these rats have been used intensively in honey studies. Therefore, this study aims to observe the effects of acute administrations of GH and AH at single doses of 2000 mg/kg of body weight.