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Table 3 Neem soap minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC)

From: Inhibitory effects of Azadirachta indica secondary metabolites formulated cosmetics on some infectious pathogens and oxidative stress radicals

Test Pathogens Neem Soap Controls
NMS NMLS a NMSBS b NMLSBS c Ciprofloxacin d Water e
MIC mg /mL MBC mg / mL MIC mg/mL MBC mg /mL MIC mg /mL MBC mg /mL MIC mg /mL MBC mg/mL MIC mg/mL MBC mg/mL MIC 500 μL
L. ivanovii 0.400 ± 0.03 0.800 ± 0.01 VG 0.200 ± 0.03 0.400 ± 0.01 NG 0.200 ± 0.02 0.400 ± 0.01 NG 0.012 ± 0.002 0.025 ± 0.001 NG 0.012 ± 0.001 0.05 ± 0.01 NG VG
S. aureus 0.800 ± 0.02 0.800 ± 0.10 VG 0.400 ± 0.04 0.800 ± 0.01 NG 0.400 ± 0.04 0.400 ± 0.03 NG 0.200 ± 0.03 0.200 ± 0.02 NG 0.050 ± 0.001 0.050 ± 0.04 NG VG
M.smegmatis 0.400 ± 0.04 0.800 ± 0.04 VG 0.400 ± 0.12 0.400 ± 0.03 VG 0.400 ± 0.04 0.400 ± 0.11 NG 0.200 ± 0.04 0.400 ± 0.02 NG 0.050 ± 0.02 0.100 ± 0.02 NG V G
E. coli 180* 0.800 ± 0.03 0.800 ± 0.03 VG 0.800 ± 0.11 0.800 ± 0.04 VG 0.400 ± 0.02 0.800 ± 0.03 NG 0.400 ± 0.01 0.800 ± 0.01 NG 0.050 ± 0.01 0.050 ± 0.02 NG V G
V.paraheamolyticues * 0.400 ± 0.01 0.800 ± 0.03 VG 0.400 ± 0.03 0.800 ± 0.03 NG 0.400 ± 0.02 0.800 ± 0.03 NG 0.200 ± 0.02 0.400 ± 0.01 NG 0.050 ± 0.01 0.050 ± 0.01NG V G
E. cloacae 0.400 ± 0. 01 0.800 ± 0.04 VG 0.200 ± 0.01 0.400 ± 0.02 NG 0.025 ± 0.020 0.100 ± 0.010 NG 0.025 ± 0.020 0.200 ± 0.010 NG 0.012 ± 0.010 0.012 ± 0.001 NG V G
S. uberis 0.800 ± 0.02 0.800 ± 0.03 VG 0.40 ± 0.01 0.800 ± 0.04 VG 0.40 ± 0.03 0.800 ± 0.03 NG 0.40 ± 0.00 0.800 ± 0.01 NG 0.050 ± 0.01 0.050 ± 0.01 NG ND
  1. NMS= neem soap without neem essential oil
  2. aNMLS = neem soap with leaf EO
  3. bNMSBS = neem soap with neem stem-bark EO
  4. cNMLSBS = neem soap with the leaf and stem-bark EO
  5. dciprofloxacin = positive control
  6. eWater = negative control
  7. * confirmed bacterial resistant strains, VG = Visible growth (bacteriostatic), NG = No visible growth (bactericidal) on solid agar plate, ND = Not determined