Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 10 Combination of at least three relaxation techniques included studies

From: Mind-body practices for people living with HIV: a systematic scoping review

Project identifier Design Sample size Intervention/duration Outcome/time
[85] USA case series (one group pretest-post-test design) 2 SMT 13 stress management training, progressive relaxation, autogenic training, and/or guided imagery augmented with biofeedback i.s. of 1 h30 + relaxation home practice /13 weeks Post-int ↓ anxiety ↓ physiological stress symptoms
[86] USA case series (one group pretest-post-test design) 3 B/AB/ PMR/GI 8 biofeedback of abdominal breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery i.s. of 1 h30 + relaxation home practice /8 weeks Post-int ↓ symptom severity ↓ stress ↓ mood disturbance
[87] USA untreated control group with pretest and post-test design 1 B/PMR/AT 20 biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, autogenic phrases i.s. of 1 h + daily relaxation home practice /10 weeks Post-int ↓ muscle tension ↓ stress ↑ lymphocyte immune system functioning
1 CG usual care
[88] USA untreated control group with pretest and post-test design 30 SMT 6 cognitive restructuring, active coping skills, progressive muscle relaxation, yoga form, thematic imagery, meditation g.s. of 1 h + daily home practice /6 weeks Post-int ↑ well being
15 CG usual care
[89, 135] USA untreated control group with pretest and post-test design 60 CBT 12 pain management, cognitive reconceptualization, restructuring, diversion and behavioral activation, problem solving, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery and breathing g.s. of 1 h30 /12 weeks Post-int & 6 months ↓ pain
30 CG usual care
[90, 136] USA untreated control group with pretest and post-test design 196 RES led 10 CBSM+ g.s. of 2 h + 6 healthy life styles (adherence, nutrition, physical activity, sexual risk and alcohol and drug use) g.s of 2 h by research staff /16 weeks Post-int To RES-led and CHC-led: ↑ nutrition ↑ physical activity ↓ sexual intercourse ↓ tobacco use
168 CHC led 10 CBSM+ g.s. of 2 h + 6 healthy life styles (adherence, nutrition, physical activity, sexual risk and alcohol and drug use) g.s of 2 h by community health center /16 weeks
64 obs only observation
[91] USA RCT 13 B/AT/ GI/H 8 thermal biofeedback, autogenic training, guided imagery, hypnosis g.s. of 1 h30 + daily home practice /8 weeks Post-int ↓ symptoms ↑ vigor ↑ hardiness
13 WL wait list
[92] USA RCT N = 10 ? BSM 20 progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback assisted relaxation, self-hypnosis, meditation i.s. of 1 h + home practice /10 weeks Post-int ↓ anxiety ↓ mood disturbance ↑ T cell count ↑ self-esteem
? CG usual care
[93, 137,138,139,140] USA RCT 22 CBSM 10 stress and emotion, rational thought replacement, coping skills, assertiveness training, anger management, identification social support, relaxation techniques (progressive muscle relaxation, autogenic training, meditation, breathing exercise), g.s. of 2 h15 + twice daily relaxation home practice /10 weeks Post-int ↓ dysphoria ↓ anxiety ↓ HSV-2 antibody titers ↑ coping skills ↑ social support
18 CG usual care
[94, 141] USA Pilot RCT + QA 34 PSMP 7 symptoms, medication, communication with caregivers, cognitive-behavioral strategies, muscle relaxation, guided imagery, visualization, prayer or meditation g.s. of 2 h30 + homework /7 weeks Post-int ↑ self-efficacy ↓ symptoms
37 CG usual care
[95] USA RCT 18 RT 7 breathing, autogenic relaxation, progressive muscle relaxation, imagery techniques s. of 2 h and 15 min + daily home practice /12 week Post-int ↑ health behavior ↑ CD4+ cells ↓ viral load
11 WL wait list
[96] USA RCT 8 Massage 12 massage i.s. of 45 min / 12 weeks Post-int To massage + ex and massage + REL ↓ medical care utilization To massage + REL ↑ health perceptions
8 Massage +EX 12 massage i.s. of 45 min + 12 aerobic exercise i.s. of 20 min + 12 aerobic exercise i.s. of 45 min /12 weeks
8 Massage + REL 12 massage i.s. of 45 min + 12 biofeedback, diaphragmatic breathing and autogenic relaxation i.s. of 45 min
7 CG usual care
[97] USA RCT 20 SM 14 cognitive behavioral management skills, anxiety, anger and depression management, coping skills, abdominal breathing, progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic training i.s. of 90 min /7 weeks Post-int ↓ mood disturbance (anger, confusion, tension, depression and fatigue) ↑ coping ↑ health perceptions
20 WL usual care
[98, 142,143,144,145,146,147,148,149,150] Dissertation USA RCT 62 CBSM 10 stress and emotion, cognitive restructuring, coping skills, assertiveness training, anger management, identification and using social support, relaxation techniques (progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, autogenic training, meditation, breathing exercise) g.s. of 2 h15 + twice daily relaxation home practice /10 weeks Post-int ↓ depression ↓ mood disturbance ↓ dysfunctional attitudes ↓ stress ↓ norepinephrine ↓ cortisol ↑ coping strategies ↑ free testosterone ↑ social support
38 WL wait list
[99] USA RCT 59 CBSM 8 cognitive restructuring techniques, active coping skills, breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, yoga form stretching, guided imagery g.s. of 1 h30 + daily relaxation practice /8 weeks Post-int To CBSM: ↑ quality of life (emotional well-being)
43 SSG 36 WL 8 emotional communication, problem solving, cognitive reframing, and empowerment g.s. of 1 h30 /8 weeks
[100, 151] USA RCT 76 CBSM +MAT 10 stress management and relaxation practice (progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, autogenic training, meditation, breathing exercise) g.s. of 2 h15 + twice daily relaxation home practice /10 weeks and 3 adherence information i.s. /9 month Post-int & 15 months ↓ depressed mood ↓ denial coping ↓ viral load
54 MAT 3 i.s of information adherence/ 9 month
[101, 152] USA RCT 58 AC + RR 12 acupuncture and relaxation techniques (breathing, mental repetition, autogenic, guided body scan, visualization and guided imagery) i.s. of 45 to 60 min + twice daily relaxation home practice /12 weeks Post-int ↑ QoL
61 AC 12 acupuncture and soft music i.s. of 45 to 60 min
[102, 153] USA RCT 44 CBSM 10 stress management and relaxation practice g.s. of 2 h15 relaxation techniques (progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, autogenic training, meditation, breathing exercise) + twice daily relaxation home practice /10 weeks Post-int & 9 months ↑ affect ↑ social support ↓ stress ↓ cervical neoplasia
26 WL wait list
[103, 154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161] USA RCT 212 CBSM+ 10 CBSM g.s. of 2 h (stress and emotions, coping skills, assertiveness training, anger management, social support, progressive muscle relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, guided imagery) + relaxation home practice/ 10 weeks Post-int & 6 and 12 months ↑ self-efficacy ↑ QoL ↑ cognitive functioning ↓ depression & anxiety by women who
239 III 10 information intervention with videotape i.s. of 2 h/ 10 weeks
[104] USA RCT 31 AC + RR 12 acupuncture and relaxation techniques (breathing, mental repetition, autogenic self-hypnosis, guided body scan, visualization and guided imagery) i.s of 30 min + relaxation home practice /8 week Post-int ↓ symptoms (loose stools, diarrhoea, gas/bloating) (The interventions of acupuncture and the RR were more effective when used in combination than when used alone)
27 AC + HE 12 acupuncture and management of HIV symptoms information i.s of 30 min /8 weeks
27 SAC + RR 12 sham acupuncture and and relaxation techniques (breathing, mental repetition, autogenic self-hyponis, guided body scan, visualization and guided imagery) i.s. of 30 min + relaxation home practice /8 week
30 SAC + HE 12 sham acupuncture and management of HIV symptoms `information i.s. of 30 min /8 weeks
  1. STM Stress management training, i.s individual sessions, Post-int post intervention, B/AB/PMR/GI biofeedback of abdominal breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, B/PMR/AT biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic training, SMT stress management training, CG control group, g.s group sessions, CBT cognitive-behavioral therapy, RES led research led, CHC-led community health center led, obs observation only group, B/AT/GI/H biofeedback, autogenic training, guided imagery and hypnosis, WL wait list, BSM behavioral stress management, CBSM cognitive stress management training, QA qualitative approach, PSMP positive self-management program, RT relaxation training, massage + EX massage and aerobic exercise, massage + REL massage and relaxation, SM stress management, SSG social support group, CBSM+MAT cognitive behavioral stress management and medication adherence training, MAT medication adherence training, AC acupuncture, RR relaxation, HE health education, SAC sham acupuncture