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Table 2 Phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, nitric oxide and 15-lipoxygenase inhibition of different extracts from Croton species and positive controls

From: Croton gratissimus leaf extracts inhibit cancer cell growth by inducing caspase 3/7 activation with additional anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities

Plant name Extracts Phytochemicals IC50 (μg/mL)
TPC (mgGAE/g) TFC (mgQE/g) DPPH ABTS NO 15-LOX
Croton gratissimus CGA 222.29 ± 3.90a 43.35 ± 0.26a 217.64 ± 3.46a 170.51 ± 4.95a 49.24 ± 0.93a 10.97 ± 1.19a
CGE 180.61 ± 1.74b 44.39 ± 0.27a 32.18 ± 2.11b 34.95 ± 0.81b 51.93 ± 0.11a 2.58 ± 0.02b
CGW 121.92 ± 1.78c 29.50 ± 1.21b > 500 > 500 88.90 ± 0.57b > 100
Croton pseudopulchellus CPA 124.05 ± 2.00c 35.88 ± 0.40c 220.34 ± 4.98a 176.94 ± 2.26a 34.64 ± 0.06c 2.64 ± 0.23b
CPE 84.28 ± 1.52d 35.62 ± 0.36c 205.96 ± 3.66a 144.01 ± 2.28c 53.49 ± 0.47a 0.57 ± 0.17c
CPW 35.10 ± 1.44e 15.97 ± 0.87d > 500 > 500 > 100 > 100
Croton sylvaticus CSA 112.34 ± 1.29c 82.76 ± 1.57e 285.64 ± 2.81c 165.84 ± 7.91a 68.28 ± 0.32d 11.64 ± 1.26a
CSE 180.88 ± 1.93b 84.54 ± 1.85e 252.19 ± 2.11c 134.96 ± 7.83c 78.91 ± 2.19d 2.12 ± 0.37b
CSW 99.27 ± 0.18f 26.06 ± 0.96b > 500 > 500 > 100 > 100
Positive controls Ascorbic acid ND ND 1.92 ± 0.08d 3.92 ± 0.24d ND ND
Trolox ND ND 2.21 ± 0.24d 4.64 ± 0.46d ND ND
Quercetin ND ND ND ND 5.82 ± 0.63e 24.60 ± 0.49d
  1. Data are presented as means of triplicate measurements ± standard error, superscript letters a-f represent statistical difference between data obtained, and for each parameter within a column of the above table, data with different letters mean significantly different at p < 0.05 while data with same letters are statistically not different.; ND = Not Determined. IC50: concentration required to inhibit the activity by 50% compared to untreated controls. CGA, CGE and CGW represent respectively acetone, ethanol and water extracts of Croton gratissimus. CPA, CPE and CPW represent respectively acetone, ethanol and water extracts of Croton pseudopulchellus. CSA, CSE and CSW represent respectively acetone, ethanol and water extracts of Croton sylvaticus. TPC: total phenolic content (mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract) and TFC: total flavonoid content (mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of extract). DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, ABTS: 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical, NO: nitric oxide, 15-LOX: 15-lipoxygenase