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Table 1 Published bioactivity and phytochemistry of the studied plants

From: Cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Elephantopus mollis, Kalanchoe crenata and 4 other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards human carcinoma cells

Species (family); Voucher Numbera Traditional uses Parts used (%yield)b Phytochemical composition (This study) Bioactive or potentially bioactive components Bioactivity of crude extractc
Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (Annonaceae)/ 32,065/HNC Treatment of Rickettsia fever, cough and wounds, typhoid fever and infective hepatitis or jaundice, urinary tract infections [30, 31] Bark (3.58%) Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenes, tannins, steroids, polyphenols Alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides [31] Antipyretic [32], antimicrobial and antimalarial activities [33]
Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae)/ 39,570/HNC Treatment of various types of cancers and liver infections [25], cough, anemia, dysentery, hepatitis and a number of free radical-mediated diseases including cancer and diabetes [34] Whole plant (1.77%) Flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, polyphenols Sesquiterpene lactones [25]; 3,4-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid [34]; 28Nor-22(R)Witha 2,6,23-trienolide [28] Cytotoxic of ethyl acetate extract towards HepG2 cells with the lowest EC50 value of 9.38 μg/mL, NCI-H23 cells (13.17 μg/mL), T-47D cells (12.57) and Caov-3 cells (42.11 μg/mL) [25]; antidiabetes activity [28]
Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth (Crassulaceae)/ 35,196/HNC Used as antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory drug [35]; Treatment of headache, general debility, dysentery, smallpox and convulsion [36] Leaves (5.06%) Alkaloids, steroids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpenes Terpenoids, tannins, polysaccharids, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids [37] Antimicrobial activity [36]; analgesic and anticonvulsant effects [38] and antihyperglycaemic [37]
Lophira alata Banks ex C.F.Gaertn.(Ochnaceae)/44,073/HNC Treatment of febrile conditions, cough, jaundice, and gastrointestinaldisorders [39] Bark (7.13%) Alkaloids, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpenes Lophirachalcone, alatachalcone [40]; lophirone L, lophirone M, luteolin and lithospermoside [41]; isoflavonoids [42] Cytotoxic, antimutagenic, and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract and chalcone dimers (lophirones B and C) [29]; Lophirachalcone, alatachalcone showed anti-inflammatory activity and inhibited tumor promotion caused by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate [40]
Millettia macrophylla Benth. (Fabaceae)/ 24,038/HNC Treatment of respiratory difficulties, constipation, colds and headaches, jaundice, cancer as well as some physiological disorders related to menopause [26] Leaves (4.20%) Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, polyphenols, triterpenes Lupenone, lupeol, stigmastenone, palmitic acid, daidzein dimethylether, formononetin, afromorsin, secundiferol I, 2′-hydroxyformononetin, pisatin, flemichapparin B, dihydrocoumestrol dimethyl ether and variabilin [26] Estrogenic effect [26]; poor cytotoxic effects of compounds and phenolic fractions towards breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 [26]
Phragmanthera capitata (Spreng.) Balle (Loranthaceae)/ 24,667/HNC Treatment of fever, diabetes, abdominal pains, parasitic diseases, and urinary tract infections [43] Leaves (15.44%) Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, polyphenols, triterpenes Lactones, rel-(1R,5S,7S)-7-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-2,6-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one and 4-{2-[rel-(1R,3R,5S)-7-oxo-2,6-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-yl]ethyl}phenyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate; betulinic acid, dodoneine, quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin, betulin, lupeol and sitosterol [43] Antiviral effects against hepatitis C virus [44]; antiplasmodial activity [43]
  1. a(HNC): Cameroon National Herbarium; b yield calculated as the ratio of the mass of the obtained methanol extract/mass of the plant powder; Underline: disease states bearing relevance to cancer or cancer-like symptoms; cCell line [HepG2: hepatocarcinoma cells; NCI-H23: lung cancer cells; T-47D, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231: breast cancer cells; Caov-3: ovarian cancer cells]