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Table 1 Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EOs (%, v/v) and drugs (μg/mL) against Candida spp. evaluated by the broth microdilution (BM) and vapour contact (VC) methods

From: Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of essential oils against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida

Essential oils/drugs Methods C.albicans (n = 26) C.glabrata (n = 10) C.tropicalis (n = 10)
  Range MIC 50 MIC 90 range MIC 50 MIC 90 range MIC 50 MIC 90
Thyme red BM 0.03–0.25 0.03 0.125 0.06–0.25 0.06 0.125 0.06–0.25 0.06 0.25
VC <0.0038 <0.0038 <0.0038 <0.0019–0.03 0.0078 0.015 0.0075–0.015 0.0038 0.0038
Fennel BM 0.25–1 0.25 1 0.25–1 0.25 1 0.5–1 1 1
VC 0.25–1 0.25 0.5 0.25–1 0.25 0.25 0.25–1 0.25 0.5
Clove BM 0.25–1 0.25 1 0.25–1 0.25 1 0.125–1 0.25 1
VC 0.25–1 0.5 0.5 0.25–0.5 0.5 0.5 0.06–1 0.06 0.25
Pine BM 0.03–0.06 0.06 0.06 0.0075–0.5 0.015 0.25 0.015–0.5 0.03 0.5
VC 0.5–1 1 1 0.5–1 1 1 0.5–1 1 1
Sage BM 0.5–1 1 1 0.5–1 1 1 0.5–1 1 1
VC 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.125–0.25 0.125 0.25 0.06 0.06 0.06
Lemon balm BM 0.5–1 1 1 0.5–1 0.125 1 0.06–0.5 0.25 0.25
VC 0.015–0.03 0.015 0.015 0.015–0.06 0.03 0.06 0.0038–0.015 0.015 0.015
Lavender BM 0.5–1 1 1 0.5–1 0.25 1 0.125–1 0.25 1
VC 0.0019–0.06 0.06 0.06 0.0075–0.06 0.03 0.06 0.015–0.06 0.03 0.06
Fluconazole BM 0.5- > 64 0.50 4.00 0.125- > 64 4.00 64.00 0.25- > 64 2.00 16
Voriconazole BM 0.008–8 0.06 0.12 0.008–8 0.25 4.00 0.032–8 0.12 2.00
  1. Results were obtained from 3 independent experiments performed in duplicate and expressed as modal results