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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population (n = 267) and their association with CAM use

From: Use of complementary and alternative medicines in haemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study from Palestine

Variable Overall N (%) N =267 CAM users N (%) N = 172 Non-CAM users N (%) N = 95 P value
Age category (year)     0.093
  < 40 58 (21.7) 42 (24.4) 16 (16.8)
 40–59 97 (36.3) 66 (38.4) 31 (32.6)
  ≥ 60 112 (41.9) 64 (37.2) 48 (50.5)
Gender     0.899
 Male 139 (52.1) 89 (51.7) 50 (52.6)
 Female 128 (47.9) 83 (48.3) 45 (47.4)
BMI     0.323
 Underweight 24 (9) 16 (9.4) 8 (9.3)
 Normal 97 (36.3) 71 (41.8) 26 (30.2)
 Overweight 27 (28.1) 44 (25.9) 28 (32.6)
 Obese 63 (23.6) 39 (22.9) 24 (27.9)
Education     0.112
 Not educated 40 (15.0) 21(12.2) 19 (15)
 Elementary school (primary) 71 (26.6) 42 (24.4) 29 (30.5)
 High school (secondary school) 102 (38.2) 69 (40.1) 33 (34.7)
 University 54 (20.2) 40 (23.3) 14 (14.7)
Income     0.006
 Moderate to high (≥2000 NIS) 100 (37.5) 75 (43.6) 25 (26.3)
 Low (<2000 NIS) 167 (62.5) 97(56.4) 70 (73.7)
Living     0.559
 City 84 (31.5) 58 (33.7) 26 (27.4)
 Village 161 (60.3) 100 (58.1) 61 (64.2)
 Palestinian refugee camps 22 (8.2) 14 (8.1) 8 (8.4)
Marital Status     0.404
 Married 188 (70.4) 118 (68.6) 70 (73.7)
 Not married 79 (29.6) 54 (20.2) 25 (26.3)
Occupation     0.706
 Unemployed 232 (86.9) 148 (86.0) 84 (88.4)
 Employed 35 (13.1) 24 (14.0) 11 (11.6)
Duration of dialysis (month)     0.343
  < 12 58 (21.7) 40 (23.3) 18 (18.9)
 12–49 119(44.6) 71 (41.3) 48 (50.5)
  ≥ 50 90 (33.7) 61 (35.5) 29 (30.5)
Number of dialysis sessions per week     <0.001
  ≤ 2 26 (9.7) 14 (8.1) 12 (12.6)
 3 204 (76.4) 144 (83.7) 60 (63.2)
  ≥ 4 37 (13.9) 14 (8.1) 23 (24.2)
Dialysis in a day (hours)     0.066
  ≤ 3 79 (29.6) 43(25.0) 36 (37.9)
  > 3- < 4 119 (44.6) 84 (48.8) 35 (36.8)
  ≥ 4 69 (25.8) 45 (26.2) 24 (25.3)
Transplantation history     0.830
 Yes 26 (9.7) 16 (9.3) 10 (10.5)
 No 241 (90.3) 156 (90.7) 85 (89.5)
Total chronic co-morbid disease     0.959
Non 26 (9.7) 18 (10.5) 8 (8.4)
 1 62 (23.2) 40 (23.3) 22 (23.2)
 2 63 (23.6) 40 (23.3) 23 (24.2)
  ≥ 3 116 (43.4) 74 (43.0) 42 (44.2)
Presence of diabetes mellitus     0.091
 Yes 122 (45.7) 72 (59.0) 50 (52.6)
 No 145 (54.3) 100 (58.1) 45 (47.4)
Presence of hypertension     0.940
 Yes 196 (73.4) 126 (73.3) 70 (73.7)
 No 71 (26.6) 46 (26.7) 25 (26.3)
Chronic medication (per day)     0.393
  < 6 95 (35.6) 58 (33.7) 37 (38.9)
  ≥ 6 172 (64.4) 114 (66.3) 58 (61.1)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CAM Complementary and alternative medicine, NIS New Israeli Shekel