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Table 3 Effect of FXM and its fractions on carrageenan induced paw edema in rat

From: Fraxinus xanthoxyloides leaves reduced the level of inflammatory mediators during in vitro and in vivo studies

Treatment Dose/route Mean paw volume before carrageenan injection Increase in paw volume (ml) after carrageenan injection (Mean ± SD)/Percent inhibition of edema
    +1 h +2 h +3 h +4 h
Saline 2 ml, i.p. 1.12 ± 0.08 2.58 ± 0.09 2.67 ± 0.09 2.21 ± 0.09 1.81 ± 0.11
FXM 100 mg/kg, p.o. 1.11 ± 0.08 2.52 ± 0.06 2.30 ± 0.09 2.12 ± 0.20 1.48 ± 0.08
    5.88 ± 1.99c 19.72 ± 2.39cde 35.84 ± 12.89cd 45.28 ± 4.02bc
FXM 200 mg/kg, p.o. 1.17 ± 0.09 2.44 ± 0.04 2.05 ± 0.06 1.92 ± 0.04 1.45 ± 0.06
    15.34 ± 7.95b 41.07 ± 5.00b 52.51 ± 8.30b 58.52 ± 8.19b
FXH 100 mg/kg, p.o. 1.15 ± 0.08 2.61 ± 0.08 2.56 ± 0.09 2.51 ± 0.11 1.71 ± 0.08
    2.84 ± 2.42c 4.99 ± 3.22g 13.44 ± 5.41e 18.81 ± 2.21e
FXH 200 mg/kg, p.o. 1.11 ± 0.05 2.55 ± 0.05 2.33 ± 0.06 2.32 ± 0.05 1.61 ± 0.04
    3.96 ± 2.28c 17.89 ± 2.03de 23.29 ± 4.53de 27.88 ± 6.75de
FXC 100 mg/kg, p.o. 1.14 ± 0.06 2.58 ± 0.06 2.21 ± 0.06 2.06 ± 0.13 1.53 ± 0.08
    3.85 ± 1.85c 28.28 ± 3.11c 42.12 ± 7.49bc 43.57 ± 5.21bc
FXC 200 mg/kg, p.o. 1.09 ± 0.04 2.17 ± 0.04 1.71 ± 0.03 1.53 ± 0.04 1.25 ± 0.04
    29.19 ± 4.60a 59.67 ± 3.23a 73.29 ± 2.65a 77.64 ± 3.04a
FXE 100 mg/kg, p.o. 1.12 ± 0.07 2.59 ± 0.06 2.47 ± 0.04 2.34 ± 0.06 1.55 ± 0.08
    1.71 ± 0.82c 8.76 ± 3.66fg 22.32 ± 6.02de 36.22 ± 8.23cd
FXE 200 mg/kg, p.o. 1.12 ± 0.06 2.56 ± 0.07 2.25 ± 0.05 2.18 ± 0.05 1.49 ± 0.05
    4.08 ± 1.78c 23.60 ± 2.10cd 32.38 ± 4.66cd 45.77 ± 4.22bc
FXB 100 mg/kg, p.o. 1.11 ± 0.06 2.59 ± 0.04 2.50 ± 0.05 2.32 ± 0.07 1.62 ± 0.07
    1.49 ± 1.71c 6.25 ± 1.15fg 23.07 ± 4.45de 25.68 ± 3.08de
FXB 200 mg/kg, p.o. 1.11 ± 0.06 2.55 ± 0.07 2.30 ± 0.06 2.19 ± 0.08 1.52 ± 0.06
    3.63 ± 1.31c 19.84 ± 3.34cde 31.08 ± 5.33cd 39.89 ± 7.36cd
FXA 100 mg/kg, p.o. 1.10 ± 0.06 2.58 ± 0.06 2.48 ± 0.09 2.50 ± 0.08 1.70 ± 0.05
    1.60 ± 1.16c 7.05 ± 2.71fg 11.17 ± 2.82e 13.18 ± 3.04e
FXA 200 mg/kg, p.o. 1.12 ± 0.06 2.59 ± 0.05 2.39 ± 0.04 2.36 ± 0.07 1.63 ± 0.01
    1.82 ± 1.64c 14.47 ± 4.31ef 20.80 ± 2.55de 24.94 ± 7.76de
Diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg, i.p. 1.13 ± 0.08 2.57 ± 0.05 1.63 ± 0.05 1.46 ± 0.08 1.24 ± 0.04
    4.08 ± 2.47c 67.32 ± 4.25a 80.54 ± 2.61a 85.23 ± 7.71a
  1. FXM F. xanthoxyloides methanol extract, FXH F. xanthoxyloides n-hexanefraction, FXC F. xanthoxyloides chloroform fraction, FXE F. xanthoxyloides ethyl acetate fraction, FXB F. xanthoxyloides n-butanol fraction, FXA F. xanthoxyloides residual aqueous fraction. Data values shown represent mean ± SD (n = 6). One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s HSD multiple comparison tests. Percentage inhibition is shown in brackets. Different superscript alphabets in each column indicate difference at P <0.05