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Table 5 Cytotoxicity and Streptomyces hyphae formation inhibition potential of different solvent extracts of leaf, stem and fruit of D. innoxia. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation of triplicate analysis

From: Extraction optimization of medicinally important metabolites from Datura innoxia Mill.: an in vitro biological and phytochemical investigation

Extracts Brine shrimp cytotoxicity (Concentration μg/ml) THP-1 cytotoxicity (Concentration μg/ml) Protein kinase inhibition
  % mortality LC50 % mortality IC50 Diameter (mm ± SD)
  1000   10   Clear zone Bald zone
Leaf
 Nh 100.0 ± 0.00a 235.44 ± 1.12 22.32 ± 2.41c ˃10 -- 7 ± 0.38
 C 90.00 ± 0.49b 199.91 ± 0.98 80.95 ± 1.77a 5.91 ± 0.78 13 ± 0.18b 21 ± 0.29
 A 96.60 ± 0.94b 226.67 ± 1.34 18.22 ± 1.68 ˃10 7 ± 0.15 11 ± 0.47
 EthA 98.30 ± 0.47 150.48 ± 1.14 23.22 ± 2.13b ˃10 7 ± 0.33 11 ± 0.39
 Eth 78.30 ± 1.25 133.26 ± 0.43 31.24 ± 2.99 ˃10 11 ± 0.43 22 ± 0.47a
 EC 90.0 ± 0.94c 154.90 ± 0.22 55.23 ± 3.22 8.9 ± 0.53 14 ± .41b 21 ± 0.52b
 MC 81.60 ± 1.70a 85.94 ± 0.16 52.38 ± 2.87 9.8 ± 0.15 7 ± 0.32 10 ± 0.21
 EthE 86.60 ± 0.94 186.95 ± 0.17 16.33 ± 3.18 ˃10 7 ± 0.62 10 ± 0.15
 MEth 88.30 ± 2.36 117.69 ± 0.18 18.32 ± 4.11 ˃10 12 ± 0.51 18 ± 0.41b
 E 78.30 ± 0.94a 97.08 ± 1.35 25.34 ± 1.45b ˃10 7 ± 0.13 9 ± 0.42
 M 85.00 ± 1.25 97.06 ± 1.18 16.21 ± 2.45 ˃10 6 ± 0.22b 9 ± 0.35
 D 67.00 ± 1.70 247.27 ± 0.74 12.85 ± 0.83a ˃10 -- --
Stem
 Nh 100.45 ± 0.00a 194.95 ± 0.34 -- -- 6 ± 0.44 --
 C 90.50 ± 0.00a 125.53 ± 0.22 -- -- 6 ± 0.58 --
 A 96.60 ± 0.94b 155.33 ± 0.98 -- -- 7 ± 0.42 13 ± 0.42b
 EthA 98.35 ± 0.58b 153.38 ± 0.54 -- -- 7 ± 0.22a 11 ± 0.22a
 Eth 78.35 ± 0.82b 250.00 ± 0.34 -- -- 9 ± 0.35a 18 ± 0.35a
 EC 90.45 ± 0.94 154.90 ± 0.16 -- -- 6 ± 0.28 9 ± 0.28a
 MC 85.40 ± 1.25c 97.06 ± 0.17 -- -- 11 ± 0.21a 22 ± 0.21a
 EthE 86.60 ± 0.47b 117.69 ± 0.16 -- -- 6 ± 0.45b 8 ± 0.45
 MEth 88.30 ± 0.95b 117.69 ± 1.46 -- -- 6 ± 0.27 9 ± 0.27
 E 78.30 ± 0.47a 137.29 ± 1.65 -- -- 8 ± 0.33 13 ± 0.33b
 M 81.60 ± 0.82b 85.94 ± 0.76 -- -- 9 ± 0.51b 14 ± 0.51c
 D 65.56 ± 0.82b 250.00 ± 0.17 -- -- 6 ± 0.47 8 ± 0.47
Fruit
 Nh 78.30 ± 1.25a 359.12 ± 0.18 76.19 ± 1.92a 3.49 ± 0.17 -- 10 ± 0.81b
 C 91.60 ± 1.25a 141.68 ± 1.34 76.66 ± 2.22a 4.52 ± 1.23 -- 10 ± 0.54
 A 93.30 ± 0.47a 240.91 ± 1.56 16.23 ± 2.23 ˃10 11 ± 0.23b 18 ± 0.54a
 EthA 91.60 ± 1.25b 114.40 ± 0.78 16.88 ± 2.23 ˃10 11 ± 0.47b 17 ± 0.22a
 Eth 93.30 ± 1.25a 201.96 ± 0.17 10.32 ± 1.45 ˃10 -- 10 ± 0.22
 EC 91.65 ± 1.25a 234.92 ± 0.27 18.3 ± 2.55b ˃10 -- 10 ± 0.24
 MC 85.00 ± 2.83b 54.07 ± 0.16 18.3 ± 2.66a ˃10 -- 9 ± 0.32
 EthE 98.35 ± 0.47a 218.64 ± 0.34 61.91 ± 1.22b 8.88 ± 1.16 8 ± 0.38b 14 ± 0.38a
 MEth 90.00 ± 1.63a 152.61 ± 1.14 15.62 ± 1.87 ˃10 -- 13 ± 0.62b
 E 90.00 ± 0.82a 229.21 ± 1.56 18.23 ± 1.27 ˃10 11 ± 0.22a 20 ± 0.67
 M 85.00 ± 1.41b 164.39 ± 1.78 16.57 ± 3.24 ˃10 7 ± 0.43c 10 ± 0.28a
 D 65.00 ± 0.82 351.71 ± 1.76 10.34 ± 1.28 ˃10 -- 7 ± 0.56
 DMSO -- -- -- -- --  
  1. Initially, the samples were evaluated at single highest concentration and the samples which showed more than 50 % inhibition/significant activity were tested at lower concentrations to find their LC50. Negative control: DMSO. LC50 of Doxorubicin (positive control employed in the brine shrimp lethality assay) was 5.93 μg/ml. IC50 of 5-Florouracil (5FU) and Vincristine (positive controls employed in anticancer assay) was 5 and 8.1 μg/ml respectively. Growth inhibition zone exhibited by surfactin (positive control in Protein kinase inhibition assay) was 20 ± 1.02 mm (bald zone)
  2. Values (mean ± SD) are average of three samples of each plant extract, analyzed individually in triplicate (n = 1 × 3). a-c Means difference is highly significant, slightly significant, significant at p < 0.05