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Table 4 Effect of ZO-ActFr (50 mg/kg) or standard MCP (30 mg/kg) administered 30 mins before cisplatin challenge, on the level of neurotransmitters and their metabolites (ng/mg tissue wet weight) in the brain areas and intestine in pigeons at t = 18 hr of cisplatin administration (n = 6–8)

From: Anti-emetic mechanisms of zingiber officinale against cisplatin induced emesis in the pigeon; behavioral and neurochemical correlates

Treatment NA DOPAC DA 5HIAA HVA 5HT
Area postrema
Saline 0.610 ± 0.014 0.382 ± 0.111 0.590 ± 0.146 0.158 ± 0.036 0.913 ± 0.095 0.062 ± 0.034
Cisplatin 0.268 ± 0.073 0.026 ± 0.010 7.366 ± 1.500### 0.188 ± 0.053 0.556 ± 0.114 0.181 ± 0.052##
MCP 30 mg 0.023 ± 0.005 0.017 ± 0.006 0.025 ± 0.012 0.005 ± 0.001* 0.121 ± 0.063* 0.023 ± 0.001
ZO-ActFr 50 mg 1.304 ± 1.014 0.229 ± 0.081 0.846 ± 0.407*** 0.082 ± 0.044 1.513 ± 0.817 0.127 ± 0.071
Brain stem
Saline 0.094 ± 0.022 0.060 ± 0.020 0.175 ± 0.078 0.060 ± 0.021 0.060 ± 0.016 0.010 ± 0.003
Cisplatin 0.067 ± 0.004 0.001 ± 0.000 0.175 ± 0.026 0.034 ± 0.003 0.009 ± 0.001 0.121 ± 0.010###
MCP 30 mg 0.119 ± 0.033 0.027 ± 0.006 0.044 ± 0.012 0.007 ± 0.001*** 0.066 ± 0.031 0.019 ± 0.002
ZO-ActFr 50 mg 0.014 ± 0.008 0.001 ± 0.000 0.080 ± 0.068 0.001 ± 0.000 0.009 ± 0.005 0.002 ± 0.000***
Intestine
Saline 0.194 ± 0.059 0.067 ± 0.020 0.090 ± 0.064 0.076 ± 0.058 0.056 ± 0.025 0.049 ± 0.016
Cisplatin 0.223 ± 0.036 0.005 ± 0.001 0.151 ± 0.042 0.329 ± 0.054 0.060 ± 0.007 0.463 ± 0.098###
MCP 30 mg 0.138 ± 0.039 0.054 ± 0.025 0.059 ± 0.018 0.097 ± 0.022 0.198 ± 0.102 0.062 ± 0.013
ZO-ActFr 50 mg 0.172 ± 0.064 0.001 ± 0.000 0.485 ± 0.218 0.009 ± 0.006 0.050 ± 0.030 0.017 ± 0.011***
  1. Values significantly different compared to cisplatin control are indicated as *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001, while Values significantly different compared to basal level are indicated as ##p < 0.05, ###p < 0.001 (ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc analysis).