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Table 3 Changes over time in selected characteristics of participants

From: Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial

Allocated group at baseline Dark chocolate, n = 11 Tomato extract, n = 15 Control, n = 10
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Time point, wks 0 8 20 P-valuea 0 8 20 P-valuea 0 8 P-valuea
Characteristics            
Weight, kg 80.3 (17.7) 80.7 (17.9) 80.5 (18.5) 1.0 74.0 (10.3) 73.8 (10.3) 75.3 (9.0) .96 75.9 (13.7) 75.6 (13.6) .80
Body mass index 26.9 (6.2) 27.2 (6.9) 27.1 (7.2) .99 26.2 (3.1) 26.2 (2.7) 26.6 (2.7) .96 26.2 (5.2) 26.13 (5.1) .88
Abdominal circumference, cm 85.7 (9.5) 81.9 (10.0) 90.5 (13.0) (.43)b 87.5 (11.5) 87.0 (10.2) 89.8 (12.2) (.84)b 82.2 (9.3) 90.5 (13.0) (.22)b
  n = 6 n = 7 n = 4   n = 13 n = 12 n = 8   n = 7 n = 6  
Physical activity ≥ 30 min, d/wk 2.9 (2.0) 3.0 (1.8) 2.3 (0.9) .99 3.8 (2.5) 3.5 (2.2) 3.0 (2.0) .61 3.3 (2.5) 3.7 (2.6) .30
5-point Likert scales            
General healthc 2.3 (0.9) 2.6 (1.1) 2.4 (0.7) .78 2.0 (0.8) 1.9 (1.1) 2.3 (1.0) .92 2.2 (0.8) 2.2 (0.8) .82
Energy levelsd 2.5 (0.8) 2.4 (1.2) 2.4 (1.3) .89 2.3 (1.0) 2.1 (0.9) 2.5 (1.2) .68 2.3 (0.8) 2.6 (1.2) .22
Moode 2.1 (0.5) 2.2 (0.8) 2.2 (0.6) .93 2.1 (0.7) 2. 0 (0.7) 2.1 (0.7) .86 2.0 (0.7) 2.3 (0.5) .20
  1. Time points: Week 0 (baseline) and week 8 (end of intervention period of phase 1, parallel RCT); week 20 (end of intervention period of phase 2, crossover)
  2. a P-values of differences over time within a group by linear mixed model analysis
  3. b P-values not based on equal numbers at different time points
  4. c 5-point scale with 1 = excellent, 2 = very good, 3 = good, 4 = fair, 5 = poor
  5. d 5-point scale with 1 = very energetic, 2 = moderately energetic, 3 = somewhat energetic, 4 = fatigued, 5 = very fatigued
  6. e 5-point scale with 1 = very happy, 2 = happy, 3 = up and down, 4 = unhappy, 5 = very unhappy