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Table 1 Uses and properties of ethnomedicinal plants collected for antimicrobial screening

From: Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India

Botanical name and Family Local Name Mode of preparation, parts used and Ethnomedicinal uses Properties [26-28]
Acalypha fruticosa Forsskal Euphorbiaceae Chinni chedi Decoction of leaves prepared in water is taken internally to treat dysentery. Root and leaf paste is prepared in water and applied externally to treat skin diseases. Stomachic and attenuate
Albizia procera Benth. Mimosaceae Usila maram Leaf powder is mixed with coconut oil and applied on hair for better growth. Insecticide
Cassia alata L. Caesalpiniaceae Seemai agathi Root powder is mixed with lime juice and applied topically on the affected places to treat skin diseases. Antiparasitic, astringent, purgative
Cassia auriculata L. Caesalpiniaceae Avaarai Whole plant is powdered with the leaves and stem of Tinospora cordifolia and mixed with cow's milk and taken internally to treat diarrhoea. Flowers are crushed and mixed with goat's milk and taken orally to treat venereal diseases Conjunctives, refrigerant, anthelmintic, stomachic
Cassia fistula L. Caesalpiniaceae Sarak-kondrai Leaf paste is prepared in water and is taken internally with sugar to treat stomachache. Stem bark and leaves are mixed with coconut oil and made into a paste and applied topically over the affected places to treat skin diseases Astringent, purgative, anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative, expectorant, anti-inflammatory, cathartic
Diospyros ebenum Koenig. Ebenaceae Beedi elai chedi/Karunthumbai Fruit powder is mixed with honey and the fruits of Trichopus zeylanicus, Terminalia bellirica, Phyllanthus emblica and rhizome of Curculigo orchioides and taken orally to stimulate body stamina. Astringent
Diotacanthus albiflorus Benth. Acanthaceae Kodi-urinchi Leaf paste is prepared in water and is applied topically on affected places of wounds and on heel to treat heel cracks. Bitter
Elephantopus scaber L. Asteraceae Aanai chuvadi Powder of whole plant is mixed with the leaves of Toddalia asiatica, Vitex negundo and Naravelia zeylanica and applied externally to treat rheumatism. Cardiac tonic, febrifuge, astringent and alternative
Olax scandens Roxb. Olacaceae Kaattu pavalam Decoction of stem bark prepared in water and is taken internally to treat fever and cough. Febrifuge
Pavetta indica L. Rubiaceae Pavattai Root powder and dried fruits of Piper nigrum are mixed with water and taken internally to get relief from indigestion. Laxative, tonic
Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Backor ex.K. Heyne. Fabaceae Malai porasu Paste of stem bark prepared in water is applied topically to treat wounds. Alternative
Pterolobium hexapetalum (Roth.) Sans & Wagh. Fabaceae Karu indu Decoction of leaves prepared in water is taken orally by pregnant women during delivery to reduce delivery pain. Tonic
Punica granatum L. Punicaceae Maadhulai Dried fruit coat is ground and mixed with water and taken internally to treat stomachache and diarrhoea. Astringent, anthelmintic, aphrodisiacs, laxative, diuretic, stomachic, cardio tonic, refrigerant
Solanum xanthocarpum Burm.f. Solanaceae Kandan-kathiri Dried or fresh fruits are kept in fire and the smoke is inhaled through mouth to treat tooth ache Leaf paste prepared in water is applied topically on forehead to get relief from headache. Pungent, digestive, astringent, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge
Syzygium cumini Skeels. Myrtaceae Naval pazham Leaf juice is mixed with honey or milk and taken orally to treat diabetes. Young leaves are mixed with goat's milk and ground into a paste and taken internally to treat indigestion. Fresh fruits are taken orally to treat stomachache. Astringent, stomachic, diuretic, tonic and anti-diabetic
Syzygium lineare Wall. Myrtaceae Malai naaval Fruit powder prepared in water is made into paste and taken internally with the fruits of Ficus racemosa, leaves of Hybanthus enneaspermus, rhizome of Curculigo orchioides, Caryota urens & seeds of Cissus quandrangularis to strengthen the body. Diuretic, stomachic, tonic and astringent
Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. Apocynaceae Kundalam paalai Leaf and stem powder is mixed with the stem bark of Ficus racemosa, Ficus benghalensis, Madhuca longifolia, Strychnos nux-vomica and fruits of Carica papaya and taken internally to induce abortion and applied externally to treat skin diseases. Anthelmintic and narcotic
Toddalia asiatica Pers. Solanaceae Milagaranai Leaf paste prepared in water is taken internally to treat stomachache. Powder of bark from stem is used as tooth powder and also used to treat toothache. Aromatic-tonic, stimulant, antiperiodic, pungent, stomachic