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Table 1 Studies included in this Systematic Review

From: U.S. and Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors toward dietary supplements: a systematic review

Year First Author Design Study Participants and Setting Response Rate and Sample Size Outcomes Measured Topic of Discussion
1990 Nelson, MV [26] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Random sample of hospital and community pharmacists in U.S. (the Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area) and Britain (nation wide) U.S. pharmacists 19.7% (n = 197) British pharmacists 63.0% (n = 434) Knowledge and professional practice behaviors Alternative health approaches (AHA) which included "acupuncture, auriculotherapy, biofeedback, cellular therapy, chelation therapy, chiropractic, cytotoxic testing, faith healing, food allergy, hair analysis, herbal medicine, holistic medicine, homeopathy, hypnosis, iridology, laetrile therapy, megavitamin therapy, orthomolecular psychiatry, osteopathy, and reflexology"
1998 Brown, CM [16] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Random sample of community pharmacists in the State of Texas, U.S. 36.3% (n = 142) Professional practice behaviors Alternative therapies which were defined as "those therapies that are not generally taught in pharmacy and medical schools"
1998 Portyansky, E [27] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Convenience sample of community pharmacists in U.S. (nation wide) 45% (n = 400) Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors Alternative medicine products which were defined to include "herbal preparations, homeopathic products, and nutraceuticals"
1999 Bouldin, AS [15] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Geographically stratified random sample of community pharmacists in U.S. (nation wide) 26.3% (n = 512) Attitudes and professional practice behaviors Herbal medicines which were defined as "commercially-prepared herbal products"
2000 Bokma, A [7] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Convenience sample of community pharmacists in Canada (nation wide) 12.2% (n = 366) Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors Herbals (not explicitly defined)
2000 Chang, ZG [18] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Convenience sample of pharmacists from multiple practice settings (i.e. community, primary care, academia, hospital, long-term care, and other) in Virginia and North Carolina, U.S. 75.6% (n = 164) Attitudes and knowledge Herbal medications which were defined as being "derived from a single plant source"
2000 Little, WR [24] Not reported Community pharmacists (sampling not reported) in U.S. (exact location not reported) n = > 200 (response rate not reported) Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors Herbals (not explicitly defined)
2000 Montbriand, MJ [25] Cross sectional face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews Random sample of pharmacists, physicians, and nurses in active practice in Saskatchewan, Canada Pharmacists 89% (n = 49) Physicians 58% (n = 52) Nurses 88% (n = 52) Attitudes and professional practice behaviors Alternative therapies which were defined as "all health-related products or practices initiated or prescribed by the self, family, friends, or an alternative health-care healer"
2001 Howard, N [23] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Convenience sample of pharmacists from multiple practice settings (i.e. community, hospital, long-term care, drug information, and other) from the 1999 American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Midyear Clinical Meeting in Orlando, Florida Response rate not reported (n = 70) Professional practice behaviors Dietary supplements which were defined as "botanicals (herbs) and nutritional supplements (amino acids, hormones, vitamins, and minerals)"
2002 Hamilton, WR [22] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Random sample of pharmacists (practice setting not specified) and convenience sample of entry-level PharmD students enrolled in an elective CAM class in Nebraska, U.S. Pharmacists 47% (n = 94) PharmD students 100% (n = 35) Attitudes Complementary and alternative therapies (not explicitly defined)
2003 Clauson, KA [19] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Census of pharmacists from multiple practice settings (i.e. community, primary care, academia, hospital, long-term care, and other) in Missouri, U.S. 18.2% (n = 534) Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors Natural products which were defined to include, but not be limited to, "herbs, mega-dose vitamins, minerals, hormones, and other chemical entities used by patients to maintain or improve their health".
2003 Dolder, C [20] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Random sample of pharmacists from multiple practice settings (i.e. community, hospital, long-term care, and other) in California, U.S. 21.4% (n = 428) Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors Alternative medications which were defined as "any product, including herbal remedies, vitamins, minerals, and natural products, that may be purchased at a health food store, pharmacy, supermarket, or alternative medicine store/magazine for the purpose of self-treatment"
2003 Welna, EM [28] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Random sample of pharmacists from multiple practice settings (i.e. community, hospital, industry, and other) in Minnesota, U.S. 52.4% (n = 533) Attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors Herbal and other natural products (H/NPs) which were defined as "all products of plant, animal, or mineral origin"
2004 Wood, V [29] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Random sample of community pharmacists in Canada (nation wide) 10% (n = 533) Professional practice behaviors Herbal remedy (not explicitly defined)
2005 Brown, CM [17] Cross sectional self completed questionnaire Random sample of community pharmacists in the State of Texas, U.S. 27.0% (n = 107) Professional practice behaviors Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) which was defined to include "herbal products, vitamins and minerals, homeopathic products, massage, meditation, and others"
2005 Dunn, JD [21] Longitudinal self completed questionnaire Convenience sample of community pharmacists in the State of Utah, U.S. 2003 10% (n = 19) 2004 26% (n = 63) Attitudes and knowledge Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products which were defined as herbal or natural entities