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Table 3 Estimated pain on VAS, and background factors associated with experienced pain

From: Acupuncture with manual and electrical stimulation for labour pain: a longitudinal randomised controlled trial

Factor Category Valid observations N Unadjusted Mean Estimates (SE) Mean difference1(95% CI for difference) p 2 Adjusted3Mean Estimates (SE) Mean difference1(95% CI for difference) p 2
Treatment      0.51    0.45
  SC (Ref) 561 67.6 (1.5) Ref   69.0 (1.8) Ref  
  MA 455 65.2 (1.5) 2.4 (-1.7-6.6) 0.25 66.4 (2.0) 2.6 (-1.7-6.9) 0.23
  EA 455 66.4 (1.5) 1.2 (-2.9-5.3) 0.57 68.5 (2.0) 0.6 (-3.6-4.8) 0.79
Age      0.03    0.04
  ≤25 (Ref) 555 69.2 (1.4) Ref   72.0 (1.8) Ref  
  26-34 819 65.1 (1.2) 4.1 (0.6-7.7) 0.02 67.9 (1.4) 4.1 (0.6-7.7) 0.04
  35+ 97 61.9 (3.3) 7.3 (0.3-14.3) 0.04 64.0 (3.3) 7.3 (0.3-14.3) 0.01
      0.21    0.82
Higher education No (Ref) 796 67.3 (1.2) Ref   68.2 (1.7) Ref  
  Yes 661 65.1 (1.3) 2.2 (-1.3-5.6) 0.21 67.7 (1.9) 2.5 (-1.3-5.6) 0.82
Time baseline (min)      0.00    0.00
  0-30 (Ref) 246 64.5 (1.3) Ref   63.1 (1.6) Ref  
  31-60 38 58.6 (2.4) 5.9 (1.4-10.4) 0.01 57.1 (2.6) 6.0 (1.5-10.5) 0.01
  61-90 143 60.9 (1.6) 3.7 (0.5-6.8) 0.02 59.4 (1.8) 3.7 (0.5-6.9) 0.02
  91-120 193 62.5 (1.4) 2.0 (-1.2-5.3) 0.22 61.1 (1.7) 2.1 (-1.2-5.3) 0.22
  121-150 180 66.1 (1.5) -1.6 (-5.1-1.9) 0.37 64.8 (1.7) -1.7 (-5.2-1.8) 0.35
  151-180 157 68.0 (1.6) -3.5 (-7.3-0.3) 0.07 66.7 (1.8) -3.6 (-7.4-0.2) 0.06
  181-210 139 68.0 (1.6) -3.4 (-7.4-0.6) 0.09 66.6 (1.9) -3.5 (-7.5-0.5) 0.09
  211-240 91 70.6 (1.9) -6.0 (-10.6 - -1.6) 0.01 69.2 (2.1) -6.1 (-10.6 - -1.6) 0.01
  241-270 71 72.8 (2.2) -8.2 (-13.2 - -3.3) 0.00 71.4 (2.4) -8.2 (-13.2 - -3.3) 0.00
  271-300 52 71.0 (2.5) -6.5 (-12.0 - -0.9) 0.02 69.6 (2.7) -6.5 (-12.0 - -1.0) 0.02
  301-330 50 70.6 (2.6) -6.1 (-11.9 - -0.3) 0.04 69.2 (2.8) -6.1 (-12.0 - -0.3) 0.04
  331-360 38 72.2 (3.0) -7.7 (-14.1 - -1.3) 0.02 70.9 (3.1) -7.8 (-14.2 - -1.4) 0.02
  361-390 21 78.6 (3.8) -14.1 (-22.0- -6.2) 0.00 77.4 (3.9) -14.3 (-22.2 - -6.4) 0.00
  391-420 19 70.0 (4.1) -5.4 (-13.9-3.0) 0.21 68.8 (4.2) -5.6 (-14.1-2.8) 0.19
  421-450 15 84.7 (4.6) -20.2 (-29.6 - -10.7) 0.00 83.8 (4.7) -20.7 (-30.2 - -11.2) 0.00
  451-480 18 69.5 (4.5) -5.0 (-14.3-4.3) 0.29 68.2 (4.6) -5.0 (-14.4-4.3) 0.29
  1. The main result is presented as the estimated VAS score for pain and corresponding standard error. VAS = Visual analogue scale. SC = Standard care. MA = Manual acupuncture. EA = Electro-acupuncture. Ref = reference category. 1Reference category-other category. 2Left-centered p-values represent overall comparisons between the levels of the factors while right-centred represent pairwise comparisons between each level with the reference level. 3Adjusted for: treatment group, age, education, and time from baseline, with no interactions.