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Table 1 Plant species utilized in this study with their medicinal activities

From: Ethnobotanical and antimicrobial study of some selected medicinal plants used in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) as a potential source to cure infectious diseases

Family: plant species voucher number Local name Part used Local medicinal uses Medicinal uses from literature
Asclepiadaceae: Caloptropis procera (Aiton) Dryand ISL3504 Akkh Leaves Skin infection, back pain, rheumatism, piles, whooping cough, asthma, and insecticidal. Also used in case of venomous animal bits. Asthma, cough, skin infections, snake bite, scorpion sting [22]
Asteracea: Artemisia maritima L. ISL2385 Tarakha Arial parts The fresh leaves are chopped and used to cure earache. Also used as anthelmintic, in dysentery, as stomachic and purgative. Antiseptic and anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, to kill intestinal worms. Also used to cure boils [26, 27]
Lauracea: Neolitsea chinensis (Gamble) Chun ISL5509 Maidasek/Gwain Bark Used in bone fracture and dysentery. It is also used to cure external and internal injuries, rheumatism and sprain. Also used to get relief from back bone pain. Bark is demulcent, astringent and used in diarrhoea, and dysentery. Also considered as tonic [28]
Meliacea: Azadirachta indica A. Juss ISL4529 Neem Leaves Used in fever, diabetes, skin infection, dysentery and wound healing. It is also used in foot rots, ulcer washing, to purify blood and to cure malaria. It is also used as carminative. The leaves are used for acne treatment [29]
Meliacea: Cedrela toona Roxb. Ex Rottler ISL4657 Neem Leaves Used in fever, diabetes, skin infection and dysentery. It is also sued in wound healing and ulcer washing. Fever, diabetes, dysentery, blood diseases, skin diseases (allergy and pimples), ulcer and wound healing [22]
Meliacea: Melia azedarach L. ISL5723 Dreik Leaves Malarial fever, eye diseases, piles, body swelling and head ache. It is also used to purify blood and as carminative. The leaves extract is used to reduce heat effect in summer. Malarial fever, piles, eye ache, headache, swelling, wounds, blood purification, fever and cough [22, 30],
Myratacea: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ISL3341 Safeda Leaves Locally it is used to cure flu. Antidiabetic [31]
Punicacea: Punica granatum L. ISL2781 Anar/Daroona Rind of fruit It is used in piles, diarrhoea, dysentery, whooping cough, fever and in blood purification. It is also used in stomach disorder, jaundice, toothache and vomiting. Also used to stop bleeding from nose. Used in diarrhoea, dysentery, piles, diabetes, intestinal worms, fever, blood purification, whooping cough, cooling, indigestion, stomach disorder, liver and intestinal inflammation, jaundice, vomiting, mouth gums, toothache. Dried fruit in bolus form for removal of intestinal helminthes [22, 30, 32]
Ranunculacea: Nigella sativa L. ISL8101 Kalongi Seeds The seeds are used as stimulant, digestive and expectorant. It is also used in jaundice, dysentery, diarrhoea, and whooping cough. The paste prepared by mixing ground seeds in water is used for the treatment of boils [29]
Saxifragacea: Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. ISL2197 Budpiah Rhizome It is used in washing ulcer, to cure back bone and in wound healing. Also used in dysentery and to cure piles. The decoction is used as appendicitis. Ulcer, back pain, piles, dysentery, and external or internal wounds. Used as tonic and in muscular disorders. Anticancerous drug. Externally used as wound as antiseptic [22, 33, 34]