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Table 1 Effect of atropine on the laxative activity of the crude methanolic extract of Viola betonicifolia (VBME) in mice

From: Prokinetic and laxative effects of the crude methanolic extract of Viola betonicifolia whole plant in rodents

Group no. Treatment Dose (mg/kg) Defecation/group Number of wet feces/group % of wet feces
1 Saline (p.o mL/kg) 10 3 ± 0.36 0 0
2 Atropine (i.p) 10 1 ± 0.63 0 0
3 Carbachol (p.o) 1 11.5 ± 0.5** 10.0 ± 0.54*** 88.16 ± 3.07
4 VBME (p.o) 30 8.3 ± 0.88** 5.1 ± 0.9* 61.16 ± 2.18
5 100 11.1 ± 1.3** 9.5 ± 71** 86.83 ± 4.8
6 Carbachol + Atropine (i.p) 1 + 10 4 ± 0.5** 0.83 ± 0.3*** 22.5 ± 10.1
7 VBME (p.o) + Atropine (i.p.) 30 + 10 5.3 ± 0.9* 1.83 ± 0.3*** 36.6 ± 5.2
8   100 + 10 4.6 ± 0.6** 2 ± 0.36*** 46.3 ± 11.7
  1. Values shown are mean ± S.E.M, n = 6. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 show a comparison of group # 2,3,4 and 5 vs. group # 1 (One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test), group # 5 vs. group # 2, group # 6 vs. group # 3 and group # 7 vs. group # 4 (unpaired t- test).