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Table 3 Children’s convergence insufficiency symptom survey scores and β coefficients for each item of eye exercises of acupoints questionnaire

From: Eye exercises of acupoints: their impact on refractive error and visual symptoms in Chinese urban children

  CISS score (mean ± SD) Univariate β coefficient (p value) Multiple β coefficient (p value)* Multiple β coefficient (p value)** Multiple β coefficient (p value)**
Performed eye exercises of acupoints (in school)      
  No 14.3 ± 9.8     
  Yes 13.0 ± 7.9 -1.34 (0.55) 4.39 (0.10) 4.08 (0.13) 0.75 (<0.0001)
Times per day (in school)      
  < 2 13.5 ± 7.4     
  ≥ 2 12.9 ± 8.0 -0.66 (0.57) -1.35 (0.23) -1.30 (0.25) 0.78 (<0.0001)
Serious or not      
  No/moderate 14.1 ± 7.3     
  Yes 11.6 ± 8.5 -2.47 (0.002) -1.65 (0.039) -1.62 (0.045) 0.75 (<0.0001)
Serious times per week      
  None 12.8 ± 8.1     
  < 3 15.0 ± 7.6     
  ≥ 5 12.4 ± 7.9 -0.89 (0.16) -0.55 (0.38) -0.59 (0.35) 0.77 (<0.0001)
Eye exercises of acupoints were taught by      
  Atlas/classmate 13.2 ± 8.3     
  Teacher/doctor/healthy counselor 12.9 ± 7.9 -0.26 (0.82) -0.14 (0.90) -0.19 (0.86) 0.78 (<0.0001)
Speed      
  Faster/slower than the broadcast/at will 16.0 ± 8.2     
  Following the broadcast 12.5 ± 7.8 -3.57 (0.002) -2.35 (0.042) -2.42 (0.037) 0.77 (<0.0001)
Acquaintance of eye exercises acupoints      
  No/moderate 13.9 ± 7.5     
  Yes 11.5 ± 8.4 -2.40 (0.003) -2.29 (0.004) -2.26 (0.005) 0.76 (<0.0001)
Perform additional eye exercises of acupoints (outside school)      
  No 13.1 ± 7.6     
  Yes 12.8 ± 8.6 -0.30 (0.73) -0.80 (0.34) -0.99 (0.24) 0.77 (<0.0001)
  1. CISS: convergence insufficiency symptom survey; SD: standard deviation.
  2. Multiple β coefficient*: adjusted for children’s age, gender, average parental refractive error, times spend on near work and outdoor, and item of eye exercises questionnaire; column 3 presented the OR (95% CI) of item of eye exercises questionnaire.
  3. Multiple β coefficient**: adjusted for children’s age, gender, refractive error, average parental refractive error, times spend on near work and outdoor, and item of eye exercises questionnaire; column 4 presented the OR (95% CI) of item of eye exercises questionnaire; column 5 presented the OR (95% CI) of item of the children’s age.
  4. : significantly different as compared to the first group.