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Table 1 General characteristics of participants according to Sasang constitutional types

From: Total nasal resistance among Sasang constitutional types: a population-based study in Korea

Variable TE SE SY P value
No. of cases 709 193 444  
Age 56.4 ± 9.31)a 52.8 ± 8.7 53.9 ± 9.4 < 0.0001
Female, n (%) 408 (57.6)b 95 (49.2)c 142 (32) < 0.0001
Smoking, n (%)     
  Never 346 (48.8) 110 (57.0) 290 (65.3) < 0.0001
  Former 243 (34.3)bc 48 (24.9) 107 (24.1)  
  Current 120 (16.9) 35 (18.1) 47 (10.6)  
Exercise2), n (%) 265 (40.5) 67 (40.1) 179 (44.8) 0.356
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 9.5 ± 17.6bd 5.6 ± 20.2 5.5 ± 17.0 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 26.6 ± 2.3a 21.3 ± 1.7c 22.9 ± 2.0 < 0.0001
WHR (Waist-to-hip ratio) 0.9 ± 0.1a 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 104.5 ± 28.9a 90.9 ± 13.5 93.8 ± 14.2 < 0.0001
Fasting insulin (uU/mL) 10.1 ± 8.5a 6.8 ± 2.4 7.6 ± 2.7 < 0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 195.7 ± 36.8a 201.4 ± 32.7 198.7 ± 34.4 0.094
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 161.4 ± 119.5 116.6 ± 61.4 123.3 ± 74.5 < 0.0001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 45.6 ± 10.7a 53.4 ± 15.1 52.7 ± 14.2 < 0.0001
SBP (mmHg) 119.2 ± 32.5b 112.0 ± 34.1e 112.9 ± 33.2 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 79.3 ± 31.7 75.6 ± 34.4 75.6 ± 32.0 0.107
HTN, n (%) 307 (43.3)a 34 (17.6) 105 (23.7) < 0.0001
DM, n (%) 180 (25.6)a 12 (6.4)e 62 (14.5) < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviation: TE Tae-eum type, SE So-eum type, SY So-yang type, BMI body mass index, HDL high density lipoprotein, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HTN hypertension, DM diabetes mellitus.
  2. 1)Values are mean ± SD.
  3. 2)30 min/2 times/week.
  4. a P <0.0001 vs. SE and SY types.
  5. b P <0.05 vs. SE type.
  6. c P <0.0001 vs. SY type.
  7. d P <0.001 vs. SY type.
  8. e P <0.01 vs. SY type.