Effects of 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil extracted from C. cajucara on the interaction of L. chagasi with mouse peritoneal macrophages. Parasites and/or macrophages were treated with MIC (250 μg/mL) or subMIC (125 μg/mL) of red sacaca essential oil 20 min prior to macrophage–parasite interaction. In addition, macrophages previously infected with L. chagasi were treated with the essential oil for 20 min and then incubated for 90 min at 37°C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. After 120 min of interaction, association indices were determined by counting 600 cells in triplicate coverslips. Each bar represents the mean ± standard error from at least three independent experiments, each performed in triplicate. (MØ) macrophages; (P) parasites; (PtMØ) pre-treated macrophages; (PtP) pre-treated parasites; (IMØ) infected macrophages; (Post-IMØ) post-treated infected macrophages.