Effects of PA on the lifespan and egg-to-adult viability of Drosophila. (A) Survival curves of females kept on media containing PA. The mean lifespan of female Drosophila kept on 0.3, 1 and 3 mM PA was increased by 13%, 23% and 13%, respectively (p<0.001; log-rank test). (B) The survival curves of males revealed no effects of PA. (C) The viability of females was not affected at concentrations of up to 10 mM. (D) The viability of males was reduced by PA, even at 1 mM. Larval development was arrested at 100 mM in both genders (p<0.05, t-test).