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Table 1 The effect of different desert plant extracts on NO production by LPS-activated microglial cells a.

From: Anti-Neuroinflammatory effects of the extract of Achillea fragrantissima

Plant family Plant Species NO production (%) Mean ± SEM
Asteraceae Achillea fragrantissima 30 ± 5 **
Papilionaceae Crotalaria algyptiaca 63 ± 2 **
Polygonaceae Emex spinosa 63 ± 6 **
Polygonaceae Rumex vesicarius 64 ± 6 **
Capparaceae Cleome droserifolia 66 ± 5 **
Asteraceae Launala nudicaulis 69 ± 7 **
Amaranthaceae Aerva javanica 71 ± 4 **
Asclepiadaceae Calotropis procera 72 ± 7 **
Tamaricaceae Tamarix nilotica 73 ± 6 **
Chenopodiaceae Hammada salicornica 74 ± 6 **
Asclepiadaceae Pergularia tomentosa 77 ± 4 *
Cruciferae Matthiola livida 77 ± 8 *
Malvaceae Abutilon hirtum 79 ± 8 *
Gramineae Schismus arabicus 80 ± 8
Brassicaceae Moricandia nitens 83 ± 6
Brassicaceae Brassica tournefortii 84 ± 7
Asclepiadaceae Pentatropis nivalis 84 ± 5
Gramineae Stipagrostis ciliate 85 ± 3
Chenopodiaceae Salsola cyclophylla 87 ± 4
Solanaceae Solanum incanum 87 ± 4
Zygophyllaceae Tribulus bimucronatus 88 ± 5
Chenopodiaceae Atriplex holocarpa 89 ± 3
Molluginaceae Glinus lotoides 92 ± 9
Tamaricaceae Tamarix aphylla 94 ± 6
Chenopodiaceae Hammaola salicornica 94 ± 3
Chenopodiaceae Salsola gaetula 94 ± 8
Salvadoraceae Salvadora persica 94 ± 6
Ephedraceae Ephedra aphylla 96 ± 7
Chenopodiaceae Hammada scoparia 96 ± 8
Solanaceae Lycium shawii 97 ± 4
Chenopodiaceae Salsola cyclophylla 97 ± 5
Capparaceae Capparis spinosa 98 ± 7
Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis 99 ± 5
Thymelaeaceae Thymelaea hirsute 99 ± 7
Apiaceae Deverra triradiata 94 ± 7
Chenopodiaceae Salsola vermiculata 100 ± 6
Gramineae Typha Domingensis 101 ± 5
Chenopodiaceae Anabasis setifera 102 ± 7
Gramineae Stipagrostis plumosa 102 ± 4
Solanaceae Solanum nigrum 109 ± 9
Chenopodiaceae Atriplex leucoclada 113 ± 8
Mimosoideae Acacia raddiana 114 ± 7
Mimosoideae Acacia tortilis 117 ± 6
Zygophyllaceae Zygophyllum album 140 ± 9 **
Gramineae Lasiurus scindicus 157 ± 9 **
Plantaginaceae Plantago cylindrica 157 ± 9 **
  1. a The results represent the mean ± SEM of 2-3 experiments (and of 8-9 experiments for Af) performed in triplicated or tetraplicates. The ethanolic extracts (100 μg/ml) were added to the microglial cells concomitant with the addition of LPS. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01