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Table 1 Plant sources and their traditional uses

From: Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

Plants Name Family Parts used Hypoglycemic and medicinal properties Ref.
Adansonia digitata L. Bombacaceae Leaves Lowers blood glucose level due to insulin like effect on peripheral tissues; by promoting glucose uptake and metabolism or by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis [18]
Allium sativum L. Alliaceae Rhizomes Lowers blood pressure and improves lipid profile, decreases serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, increases serum insulin levels [40]
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. Liliace Leaf Gel Hypoglycemic activity, decreases fasting glucose levels, hepatic transaminases, plasma and liver cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids. Improves plasma insulin level. Restores normal levels of LDL and HDL and cholesterol Reduces levels of hepatic phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide and have hypocholesterimic efficacy, diminishes degenerative changes observed in kidney tissues [41]
Casia fistula L. Caesalpiniaceae Leaves Hypoglycemic activity decreases blood glucose level [19]
Catharanthus roseus (L.). G. Don Apocynaceae Leaves Reduces blood glucose by enhancing secretion of insulin from β-cells of Langerhans or through extra pancreatic mechanism [42]
Cinnamomum verum Persl. Lauraceae Bark Reduces the blood glucose and elevates the plasma insulin level. [43]
Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. Cucurbitacea Fruit Reduces blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin content. C. indica extracts lowers blood glucose by depressing its synthesis, depression of glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose1,6, bisphosphatase and enhancing glucose oxidation by shunt pathway through activation of iglucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase [44]
Linum usitatisumum L. Linaceae Seeds Reduces fasting blood sugar levels, total cholesterol; reduces carbohydrate absorption from gut and clinical symptoms of diabetes associated with dyslipidamia. [20]
Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Fruit, Leaves Reduces glucose absorption in type 2 diabetes. Stimulates glycogenesis in liver causing reduction in blood glucose level. [45]
Morus alba L. Moraceae Leaves Antiphlogistic, diuretic, expectorant and antidiabetic. Increases the β-cell number in diabetic islets. Reduces levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Decreases triglycerides, cholesterol and VLDL to normal levels in type II DM patients. Restores elevated levels of blood urea. [46]
Nerium oleander L. Apocynaceae Leaves Clorogenic acid, querecetin and cathechin induce post prandial hyperglycemia by acting as α-glucosidase inhibitors. [21]
Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Laminaceae Leaves Lowers blood glucose level, modulates cellular antioxidant defense system. Improves β cell function and enhances insulin secretion. Inhibits absorption of glucose from the intestine [47]
Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Seeds Reduces glucose and serum lipid levels [48]
Terminalia chebula Retz. Combretaceae Fruit Decreases blood glucose levels by enhancing secretion of insulin from β cells of Langerhans or through extra pancreatic mechanism. Inhibits advanced glycosylation end products, which contribute to renal damage. [49]
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers Menispermaceae Stem Decreases blood glucose level through glucose metabolism. It exhibits inhibitory effect on adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia. [50]
Trigonella foenum-graceum L. Fabaceae Seeds Decreases s post prandial blood glucose level. [51]
Zingiber officinale Rosc. Zingiberaceae Rhizome Lowers plasma glucose level [52]