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Research methodology

Edited by Cheryl Ritenbaugh

This section covers research into methodological approaches in relation to complementary medicine, including developments in techniques or protocols and the methodology of epidemiological research, clinical trials and meta-analysis/systematic reviews.

  1. Physical identical and pharmacological inert are the basic requirements for placebo design, which are essential in clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention. However, it is difficult to makeu...

    Authors: Xuan Zhang, Ran Tian, Chen Zhao, Xudong Tang, Aiping Lu and Zhaoxiang Bian

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:299

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Six Chinese herb formulas, namely, the Weijing decoction (WJ), the Maxingshigan decoction (MXSG), the Yuebijiabanxia decoction (YBBX), the Qingqihuatan decoction (QQHT), the Dingchuan decoction (DC) and the Sa...

    Authors: Shaonan Liu, Jing Chen, Jinhong Zuo, Jiaqi Lai, Lei Wu and Xinfeng Guo

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:226

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Acupuncture is widely used worldwide, and systematic reviews on acupuncture are increasingly being published. Although acupuncture systematic reviews share several essential elements with other systematic revi...

    Authors: Xiaoqin Wang, Yaolong Chen, Yali Liu, Liang Yao, Janne Estill, Zhaoxiang Bian, Taixiang Wu, Hongcai Shang, Myeong Soo Lee, Dang Wei, Jinhui Tian, Bin Ma, Yongfeng Wang, Guihua Tian and Kehu Yang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:208

    Content type: Research article

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  4. In a former meta-analysis review, acupuncture was considered a potentially effective treatment for dry eye syndrome (DES), but there were heterogeneities among the outcomes. We updated the meta-analysis and co...

    Authors: Bong Hyun Kim, Min Hee Kim, Se Hyun Kang and Hae Jeong Nam

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:145

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) are prepared by extracting and purifying effective substances from herbs (or decoction pieces) using modern scientific techniques and methods. CHIs combined with aspirin + anti...

    Authors: Shi Liu, Jia-Rui Wu, Dan Zhang, Kai-Huan Wang, Bing Zhang, Xiao-Meng Zhang, Di Tan, Xiao-Jiao Duan, Ying-Ying Cui and Xin-Kui Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:120

    Content type: Research article

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  6. On account of deterioration of chronic heart failure (CHF) and extensive exploration of Chinese herbal injections (CHIs), we performed a network meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of CHIs (Huangqi injec...

    Authors: Kai-Huan Wang, Jia-Rui Wu, Dan Zhang, Xiao-Jiao Duan and Meng-Wei Ni

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:41

    Content type: Research article

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  7. This study was designed to assess the quality of reporting on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of scalp acupuncture for the treatment of stroke.

    Authors: Young-Nim You, Myung-Rae Cho, Jae-Hong Kim, Ju-Hyung Park, Gwang-Cheon Park, Min-Yeong Song, Jin-Bong Choi and Jae-Young Han

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017 17:452

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The public safety of α-tocopherol has been called in question by several meta-analyses which have raised concern among regulatory authorities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cochrane Database ...

    Authors: Christopher J. Oliver and Stephen P. Myers

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017 17:408

    Content type: Correspondence

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  9. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure compared with sham electroacupuncture.

    Authors: Jungtae Leem, Seung Min Kathy Lee, Jun Hyeong Park, Suji Lee, Hyemoon Chung, Jung Myung Lee, Weon Kim, Sanghoon Lee and Jong Shin Woo

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017 17:361

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. The Practitioner Research and Collaboration Initiative (PRACI) is an innovative, multi-modality practice-based research network (PBRN) that represents fourteen complementary medicine (CM) professions across Au...

    Authors: Amie Steel, David Sibbritt, Janet Schloss, Jon Wardle, Matthew Leach, Helene Diezel and Jon Adams

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017 17:87

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The widespread and growing use of alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) worldwide has been thoroughly described. In Argentina the limited information on the use of CAM has been reported between 40 and 5...

    Authors: Santiago Esteban, Fernando Vázquez Peña and Sergio Terrasa

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016 16:109

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major health threat worldwide. Cosmos caudatus is one of the medicinal plants used to treat type 2 diabetes. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effectiveness and safety of C...

    Authors: Shi-Hui Cheng, Amin Ismail, Joseph Anthony, Ooi Chuan Ng, Azizah Abdul Hamid and Barakatun-Nisak Mohd Yusof

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016 16:84

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. Research on continued CAM use has been largely atheoretical and has not considered the broader range of psychological and behavioral factors that may be involved. The purpose of this study was to test a new co...

    Authors: Fuschia M. Sirois, Anita Salamonsen and Agnete E. Kristoffersen

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016 16:75

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Yoga is a behavioral practice that uses physical movement, breathing, and meditation to improve health and promote personal transformation. Ancient yoga philosophy proposed that an individual’s confidence abou...

    Authors: Gurjeet S. Birdee, Stephanie J. Sohl and Ken Wallston

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016 16:3

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Summer acupoint herbal patching (SAHP) has been widely used in China for thousands of years. This bibliometric analysis aims to provide a comprehensive review of the characteristics of clinical studies on SAHP...

    Authors: Fen Zhou, Dan Yang, Jing-yu Lu, Yan-fu Li, Kai-yue Gao, Ya-jing Zhou, Ruo-xue Yang, Juan Cheng, Xiao-xiong Qi, Lily Lai, George Lewith and Jian-ping Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015 15:381

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are an important and growing presence in health care systems worldwide. A central question is whether evidence-based behavior change inte...

    Authors: Myra L Muramoto, Eva Matthews, Cheryl K Ritenbaugh and Mark A Nichter

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015 15:96

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Tobacco use remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Effective tobacco cessation aids are widely available, yet underutilized. Tobacco cessation brief interventions (BIs) increase quit r...

    Authors: Myra L Muramoto, Amy Howerter, Eva Matthews, Lysbeth Floden, Judith Gordon, Mark Nichter, James Cunningham and Cheryl Ritenbaugh

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:510

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Functional constipation (FC) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) which has a major impact on the quality of life. Acupuncture is widely used as an alternative and complementary medicine (...

    Authors: XiaoHu Xu, CuiHong Zheng, MingMin Zhang, Wei Wang and GuangYing Huang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:423

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. The Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) are aimed to standardize clinical trial reporting. Our objective is to compare the quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of traditional Chinese ...

    Authors: Jinnong Li, Zhenhua Liu, Ruiqi Chen, Dan Hu, Wenjuan Li, Xiajing Li, Xuzheng Chen, Baokang Huang and Lianming Liao

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:362

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Evidence suggests yoga is a safe and effective intervention for the management of physical and psychosocial symptoms associated with musculoskeletal conditions. However, heterogeneity in the components and rep...

    Authors: Lesley Ward, Simon Stebbings, Karen J Sherman, Daniel Cherkin and G David Baxter

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:196

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Results from clinical studies on acupuncture for stroke rehabilitation are contradictory. The reason for the inconsistent findings especially lie in the transparency and accuracy of randomized controlled trial...

    Authors: Lixing Zhuang, Jun He, Xun Zhuang and Liming Lu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:151

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Integrative medicine (IM) is a patient-centered, healing-oriented clinical paradigm that explicitly includes all appropriate therapeutic approaches whether they originate in conventional or complementary medic...

    Authors: Patricia M Herman, Sally E Dodds, Melanie D Logue, Ivo Abraham, Rick A Rehfeld, Amy J Grizzle, Terry F Urbine, Randy Horwitz, Robert L Crocker and Victoria H Maizes

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:132

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella pro...

    Authors: Felix H Fischer, George Lewith, Claudia M Witt, Klaus Linde, Klaus von Ammon, Francesco Cardini, Torkel Falkenberg, Vinjar Fønnebø, Helle Johannessen, Bettina Reiter, Bernhard Uehleke, Wolfgang Weidenhammer and Benno Brinkhaus

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:46

    Content type: Correspondence

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  24. No consistent relationship exists between pre-treatment expectations and therapeutic benefit from various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in clinical trials. However, many different expe...

    Authors: Karen J Sherman, Emery R Eaves, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Clarissa Hsu, Daniel C Cherkin and Judith A Turner

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:39

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The doctor-patient encounter (DPE) and associated patient expectations are potential confounders in open-label randomized trials of treatment efficacy. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of the ...

    Authors: Mitchell Haas, Darcy Vavrek, Moni B Neradilek and Nayak Polissar

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:16

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The 2002, 2007, and 2012 complementary medicine questionnaires fielded on the National Health Interview Survey provide the most comprehensive data on complementary medicine available for the United States. The...

    Authors: Barbara J Stussman, Christina D Bethell, Caroline Gray and Richard L Nahin

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:328

    Content type: Correspondence

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  27. Seropharmacology arising recently is a novel method of in vitro pharmacological study on Chinese herb using drug-containing animal serum. As seropharmacology possesses the advantages of experiments in vitro and i...

    Authors: Haibo Xu, Qinghe Wu, Cheng Peng and Lijuan Zhou

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:239

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The growing quantity of Complementary and Alternative Medicine literature requires databases enabled with increasingly powerful search capabilities. To address this need in the area of acupuncture research, a ...

    Authors: Benjamin L Marx, Ryan Milley, Dara G Cantor, Deborah L Ackerman and Richard Hammerschlag

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:181

    Content type: Database

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  29. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great...

    Authors: Qihe Xu, Rudolf Bauer, Bruce M Hendry, Tai-Ping Fan, Zhongzhen Zhao, Pierre Duez, Monique SJ Simmonds, Claudia M Witt, Aiping Lu, Nicola Robinson, De-an Guo and Peter J Hylands

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:132

    Content type: Review

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  30. The aim of this publication is to present a case study of how to locate and appraise qualitative studies for the conduct of a meta-ethnography in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM ...

    Authors: Brigitte Franzel, Martina Schwiegershausen, Peter Heusser and Bettina Berger

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:125

    Content type: Correspondence

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  31. The growing body of data on prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage means there is a need to standardize measurement on an international level. An international team has published a qu...

    Authors: Meike Lo Re, Stefan Schmidt and Corina Güthlin

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:259

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Although many researchers agree that applying conventional drug-trial quality criteria to CAM studies lacks plausibility, few take on the burden of devising alternative criteria in a specific area of CAM. This...

    Authors: Mikel Aickin

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:240

    Content type: Commentary

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  33. Chemoprevention crossover trials of tea can be more efficient than parallel designs but the attrition and compliance rates with such trials are unknown.

    Authors: Chiranjeev Dash, Fung-Lung Chung, Joy Ann Phillips Rohan, Emily Greenspan, Patrick D Christopher, Kepher Makambi, Yukihiko Hara, Kenneth Newkirk, Bruce Davidson and Lucile L Adams-Campbell

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:96

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are increasingly utilised for resolving difficulties conceiving. These technologies are expensive to both the public purse and the individual consumers. Acupuncture is ...

    Authors: Caroline A Smith, Suzanne Grant, Jane Lyttleton and Suzanne Cochrane

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:88

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique form of traditional Korean medicine that divides human beings into four constitutional types (Tae-Yang: TY, Tae-Eum: TE, So-Yang: SY, and So-Eum: SE), which dif...

    Authors: Jun-Hyeong Do, Eunsu Jang, Boncho Ku, Jun-Su Jang, Honggie Kim and Jong Yeol Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:85

    Content type: Research article

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