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Research methodology

Edited by Cheryl Ritenbaugh

This section covers research into methodological approaches in relation to complementary medicine, including developments in techniques or protocols and the methodology of epidemiological research, clinical trials and meta-analysis/systematic reviews.

  1. Content type: Research article

    In a former meta-analysis review, acupuncture was considered a potentially effective treatment for dry eye syndrome (DES), but there were heterogeneities among the outcomes. We updated the meta-analysis and co...

    Authors: Bong Hyun Kim, Min Hee Kim, Se Hyun Kang and Hae Jeong Nam

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:145

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) are prepared by extracting and purifying effective substances from herbs (or decoction pieces) using modern scientific techniques and methods. CHIs combined with aspirin + anti...

    Authors: Shi Liu, Jia-Rui Wu, Dan Zhang, Kai-Huan Wang, Bing Zhang, Xiao-Meng Zhang, Di Tan, Xiao-Jiao Duan, Ying-Ying Cui and Xin-Kui Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:120

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  3. Content type: Research article

    On account of deterioration of chronic heart failure (CHF) and extensive exploration of Chinese herbal injections (CHIs), we performed a network meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of CHIs (Huangqi injec...

    Authors: Kai-Huan Wang, Jia-Rui Wu, Dan Zhang, Xiao-Jiao Duan and Meng-Wei Ni

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:41

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  4. Content type: Research article

    This study was designed to assess the quality of reporting on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of scalp acupuncture for the treatment of stroke.

    Authors: Young-Nim You, Myung-Rae Cho, Jae-Hong Kim, Ju-Hyung Park, Gwang-Cheon Park, Min-Yeong Song, Jin-Bong Choi and Jae-Young Han

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017 17:452

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  5. Content type: Correspondence

    The public safety of α-tocopherol has been called in question by several meta-analyses which have raised concern among regulatory authorities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cochrane Database ...

    Authors: Christopher J. Oliver and Stephen P. Myers

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017 17:408

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  6. Content type: Study protocol

    The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure compared with sham electroacupuncture.

    Authors: Jungtae Leem, Seung Min Kathy Lee, Jun Hyeong Park, Suji Lee, Hyemoon Chung, Jung Myung Lee, Weon Kim, Sanghoon Lee and Jong Shin Woo

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017 17:361

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The Practitioner Research and Collaboration Initiative (PRACI) is an innovative, multi-modality practice-based research network (PBRN) that represents fourteen complementary medicine (CM) professions across Au...

    Authors: Amie Steel, David Sibbritt, Janet Schloss, Jon Wardle, Matthew Leach, Helene Diezel and Jon Adams

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017 17:87

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The widespread and growing use of alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) worldwide has been thoroughly described. In Argentina the limited information on the use of CAM has been reported between 40 and 5...

    Authors: Santiago Esteban, Fernando Vázquez Peña and Sergio Terrasa

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016 16:109

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  9. Content type: Study protocol

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major health threat worldwide. Cosmos caudatus is one of the medicinal plants used to treat type 2 diabetes. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effectiveness and safety of C...

    Authors: Shi-Hui Cheng, Amin Ismail, Joseph Anthony, Ooi Chuan Ng, Azizah Abdul Hamid and Barakatun-Nisak Mohd Yusof

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016 16:84

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Research on continued CAM use has been largely atheoretical and has not considered the broader range of psychological and behavioral factors that may be involved. The purpose of this study was to test a new co...

    Authors: Fuschia M. Sirois, Anita Salamonsen and Agnete E. Kristoffersen

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016 16:75

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Yoga is a behavioral practice that uses physical movement, breathing, and meditation to improve health and promote personal transformation. Ancient yoga philosophy proposed that an individual’s confidence abou...

    Authors: Gurjeet S. Birdee, Stephanie J. Sohl and Ken Wallston

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016 16:3

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Summer acupoint herbal patching (SAHP) has been widely used in China for thousands of years. This bibliometric analysis aims to provide a comprehensive review of the characteristics of clinical studies on SAHP...

    Authors: Fen Zhou, Dan Yang, Jing-yu Lu, Yan-fu Li, Kai-yue Gao, Ya-jing Zhou, Ruo-xue Yang, Juan Cheng, Xiao-xiong Qi, Lily Lai, George Lewith and Jian-ping Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015 15:381

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are an important and growing presence in health care systems worldwide. A central question is whether evidence-based behavior change inte...

    Authors: Myra L Muramoto, Eva Matthews, Cheryl K Ritenbaugh and Mark A Nichter

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015 15:96

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  14. Content type: Study protocol

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Effective tobacco cessation aids are widely available, yet underutilized. Tobacco cessation brief interventions (BIs) increase quit r...

    Authors: Myra L Muramoto, Amy Howerter, Eva Matthews, Lysbeth Floden, Judith Gordon, Mark Nichter, James Cunningham and Cheryl Ritenbaugh

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:510

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  15. Content type: Study protocol

    Functional constipation (FC) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) which has a major impact on the quality of life. Acupuncture is widely used as an alternative and complementary medicine (...

    Authors: XiaoHu Xu, CuiHong Zheng, MingMin Zhang, Wei Wang and GuangYing Huang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:423

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) are aimed to standardize clinical trial reporting. Our objective is to compare the quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of traditional Chinese ...

    Authors: Jinnong Li, Zhenhua Liu, Ruiqi Chen, Dan Hu, Wenjuan Li, Xiajing Li, Xuzheng Chen, Baokang Huang and Lianming Liao

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:362

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Evidence suggests yoga is a safe and effective intervention for the management of physical and psychosocial symptoms associated with musculoskeletal conditions. However, heterogeneity in the components and rep...

    Authors: Lesley Ward, Simon Stebbings, Karen J Sherman, Daniel Cherkin and G David Baxter

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:196

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Results from clinical studies on acupuncture for stroke rehabilitation are contradictory. The reason for the inconsistent findings especially lie in the transparency and accuracy of randomized controlled trial...

    Authors: Lixing Zhuang, Jun He, Xun Zhuang and Liming Lu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:151

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  19. Content type: Study protocol

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a patient-centered, healing-oriented clinical paradigm that explicitly includes all appropriate therapeutic approaches whether they originate in conventional or complementary medic...

    Authors: Patricia M Herman, Sally E Dodds, Melanie D Logue, Ivo Abraham, Rick A Rehfeld, Amy J Grizzle, Terry F Urbine, Randy Horwitz, Robert L Crocker and Victoria H Maizes

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:132

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  20. Content type: Correspondence

    The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella pro...

    Authors: Felix H Fischer, George Lewith, Claudia M Witt, Klaus Linde, Klaus von Ammon, Francesco Cardini, Torkel Falkenberg, Vinjar Fønnebø, Helle Johannessen, Bettina Reiter, Bernhard Uehleke, Wolfgang Weidenhammer and Benno Brinkhaus

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:46

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  21. Content type: Research article

    No consistent relationship exists between pre-treatment expectations and therapeutic benefit from various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in clinical trials. However, many different expe...

    Authors: Karen J Sherman, Emery R Eaves, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Clarissa Hsu, Daniel C Cherkin and Judith A Turner

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:39

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The doctor-patient encounter (DPE) and associated patient expectations are potential confounders in open-label randomized trials of treatment efficacy. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of the ...

    Authors: Mitchell Haas, Darcy Vavrek, Moni B Neradilek and Nayak Polissar

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:16

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  23. Content type: Correspondence

    The 2002, 2007, and 2012 complementary medicine questionnaires fielded on the National Health Interview Survey provide the most comprehensive data on complementary medicine available for the United States. The...

    Authors: Barbara J Stussman, Christina D Bethell, Caroline Gray and Richard L Nahin

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:328

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Seropharmacology arising recently is a novel method of in vitro pharmacological study on Chinese herb using drug-containing animal serum. As seropharmacology possesses the advantages of experiments in vitro and i...

    Authors: Haibo Xu, Qinghe Wu, Cheng Peng and Lijuan Zhou

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:239

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  25. Content type: Database

    The growing quantity of Complementary and Alternative Medicine literature requires databases enabled with increasingly powerful search capabilities. To address this need in the area of acupuncture research, a ...

    Authors: Benjamin L Marx, Ryan Milley, Dara G Cantor, Deborah L Ackerman and Richard Hammerschlag

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:181

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  26. Content type: Review

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great...

    Authors: Qihe Xu, Rudolf Bauer, Bruce M Hendry, Tai-Ping Fan, Zhongzhen Zhao, Pierre Duez, Monique SJ Simmonds, Claudia M Witt, Aiping Lu, Nicola Robinson, De-an Guo and Peter J Hylands

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:132

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  27. Content type: Correspondence

    The aim of this publication is to present a case study of how to locate and appraise qualitative studies for the conduct of a meta-ethnography in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM ...

    Authors: Brigitte Franzel, Martina Schwiegershausen, Peter Heusser and Bettina Berger

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 13:125

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The growing body of data on prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage means there is a need to standardize measurement on an international level. An international team has published a qu...

    Authors: Meike Lo Re, Stefan Schmidt and Corina Güthlin

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:259

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  29. Content type: Commentary

    Although many researchers agree that applying conventional drug-trial quality criteria to CAM studies lacks plausibility, few take on the burden of devising alternative criteria in a specific area of CAM. This...

    Authors: Mikel Aickin

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:240

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Chemoprevention crossover trials of tea can be more efficient than parallel designs but the attrition and compliance rates with such trials are unknown.

    Authors: Chiranjeev Dash, Fung-Lung Chung, Joy Ann Phillips Rohan, Emily Greenspan, Patrick D Christopher, Kepher Makambi, Yukihiko Hara, Kenneth Newkirk, Bruce Davidson and Lucile L Adams-Campbell

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:96

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are increasingly utilised for resolving difficulties conceiving. These technologies are expensive to both the public purse and the individual consumers. Acupuncture is ...

    Authors: Caroline A Smith, Suzanne Grant, Jane Lyttleton and Suzanne Cochrane

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:88

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique form of traditional Korean medicine that divides human beings into four constitutional types (Tae-Yang: TY, Tae-Eum: TE, So-Yang: SY, and So-Eum: SE), which dif...

    Authors: Jun-Hyeong Do, Eunsu Jang, Boncho Ku, Jun-Su Jang, Honggie Kim and Jong Yeol Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:85

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