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Basic research

Edited by Jacobus Eloff, Victor Kuete and Insop Shim

This section covers pre-clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies related to interventions or resources in the complementary medicine field, including the isolation and purification of herbal remedies, toxicological studies and research into the biological mechanisms of action of the intervention or resource.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Sheng Jiang San (SJS), a multi-herb formulation, is used in treating high fever, thirsty and anxiety in ancient China and it is sometimes used to treat seasonal influenza nowadays. However, there is no evidenc...

    Authors: Tianbo Zhang, Mengjie Xiao, Chun-Kwok Wong, Ka-Pun Chris Mok, Xin Zhao, Huihui Ti and Pang-Chui Shaw

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:150

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Proliferation and infiltration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the blood vessel media...

    Authors: Qiang Wan, Zhongyong Liu and Yuping Yang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:146

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Cryptococcal infections, besides being a problem for immunocompromised patients, are occasionally being a problem for immunocompetent patients. In addition, the lower susceptibility of this yeast to azoles is ...

    Authors: Daniela Scalas, Narcisa Mandras, Janira Roana, Roberta Tardugno, Anna Maria Cuffini, Valeria Ghisetti, Stefania Benvenuti and Vivian Tullio

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:143

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Propolis, a polyphenol-rich natural product, has been used as a functional food in anti-inflammation. However, its bioactive components and mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.

    Authors: Huasong Chang, Wenwen Yuan, Haizhu Wu, Xusheng Yin and Hongzhuan Xuan

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:142

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The current treatment for human brucellosis requires a combination of antibiotics for long periods of time, and the reported incidence and prevalence of the disease vary widely in nomadic livestock of Mongolia...

    Authors: Tsevelmaa N, Narangerel B, Odgerel O, Dariimaa D and Batkhuu J

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:144

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the treatment of diabetes, immunodeficiency diseases, and stomach ulcer in Asia. However, the anti-amnesic effect of...

    Authors: Min-Soo Kim, Dong Young Lee, Jun Lee, Hyun Woo Kim, Sang Hyun Sung, Jung-Soo Han and Won Kyung Jeon

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:136

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Brazilian green propolis is produced by mixing secretions from Africanized honey bees with exudate, mainly from Baccharis dracunculifolia. Brazilian propolis is especially rich in flavonoids and cinammic acid der...

    Authors: Hiroshi Kitamura, Natsuko Saito, Junpei Fujimoto, Ken-ichi Nakashima and Daisuke Fujikura

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:138

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Solanum aculeastrum fruits are used by some cancer sufferers as a form of alternative treatment. Scientific literature is scarce concerning its anticancer activity, and thus the aim of the study was to assess the...

    Authors: Trevor Burger, Tsholofelo Mokoka, Gerda Fouché, Paul Steenkamp, Vanessa Steenkamp and Werner Cordier

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:137

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Herba Siegesbeckiae (HS, Xixiancao in Chinese) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicinal herb for soothing joints. In ancient materia medica books, HS is recorded to be the aerial part of Siegesbeckia pube...

    Authors: Hui Guo, Yi Zhang, Brian Chi-Yan Cheng, Mei-Yuk Lau, Xiu-Qiong Fu, Ting Li, Tao Su, Pei-Li Zhu, Yuen-Cheung Chan, Anfernee Kai-Wing Tse, Tao Yi, Hu-Biao Chen and Zhi-Ling Yu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:141

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Medicinal plants have been founded as traditional herbal medicine worldwide. Most of the plant’s therapeutic properties are due to the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, tannins a...

    Authors: Hazir Rahman, Ilyas Khan, Anwar Hussain, Abdelaaty Abdelaziz Shahat, Abdul Tawab, Muhammad Qasim, Muhammad Adnan, Mansour S. Al-Said, Riaz Ullah and Shahid Niaz Khan

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:140

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic zoonotic parasitic disease caused by trematode worms. The host inflammatory response to schistosome eggs leads to perioval granulomata formation, mainly in the liver and...

    Authors: Dina M. Metwally, Ebtesam M. Al-Olayan, Mohammad Alanazi, Sanaa B. Alzahrany and Abdelhabib Semlali

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:135

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR), a traditional Chinese herb, has anti-inflammatory and immuno-regulatory properties. This study explored the effects of RPR on stimulation of osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 c...

    Authors: Huey-En Tzeng, Chun-Hao Tsai, Tin-Yun Ho, Chin-Tung Hsieh, Shen-Chieh Chou, Yi-Ju Lee, Gregory J. Tsay, Po-Hao Huang and Yi-Ying Wu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:132

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The medicinal orchid Dendrobium moniliforme contains water-soluble polysaccharides, phenanthrenes, bibenzyl derivatives, and polyphenol compounds. This study explored the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of D...

    Authors: Mukti Ram Paudel, Mukesh Babu Chand, Basant Pant and Bijaya Pant

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:134

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Previously, we reported that ChondorT showed significant anti-arthritis and anti-inflammatory effects. ChondroT, a new herbal medication, consists of the water extracts of Osterici Radix, Lonicerae Folium, Angeli...

    Authors: Jiwon Jeong, Kiljoon Bae, Sun-Gil Kim, Dongwook Kwak, Young-Joo Moon, Chan-Hun Choi, Young-Ran Kim, Chang-Su Na and Seon-Jong Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:131

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb. and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are native plants with medicinal and nutritive significance in Asia. The present study was aimed at evaluating antiproliferative effects on human cancer cel...

    Authors: Piyawan Kumnerdkhonkaen, Somprasong Saenglee, Md. Ali Asgar, Gulsiri Senawong, Kanoknan Khongsukwiwat and Thanaset Senawong

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:130

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Crocin (CRO), chlorogenic acid (CGA), geniposide (GEN), and quercetin (QUE) are all natural compounds with anti-obesity properties, in particular, hypolipidemic effects, which have been widely used for the tre...

    Authors: Ennian Leng, Yuan Xiao, Zhentao Mo, Yiqi Li, Yueyue Zhang, Xiaosi Deng, Min Zhou, Chaochao Zhou, Zengxuan He, Jingyi He, Lu Xiao, Junming Li and Wenna Li

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:122

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber), from the family Cucurbitaceae, is a therapeutic plant with various pharmacological benefits, broadly utilized as a part of complementary medicine (e.g., Unani, Ayurveda, Siddha, and...

    Authors: Raid Al Akeel, Ayesha Mateen, Khalid K. Alharbi, Abdullah A. Alyousef, Hazem M. Al-Mandeel and Rabbani Syed

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:121

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  18. Content type: Research article

    A Chinese herbal formula, namely Jian-Pi-Yi-Shen (JPYS), has been clinically prescribed for patients with chronic kidney disease associated-anemia, and which can improve the patient’s immunological system. How...

    Authors: Jianping Chen, Amy G. W. Gong, Xiaoyan Liu, Zhonggui Li, Airong Qi, Tina T. X. Dong, Tiegang Yi, Karl W. K. Tsim and Shunmin Li

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:119

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Among the processes involved in the breast tumor microenvironment, angiogenesis and inflammation play a central role, and the main factors of these processes are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), ...

    Authors: Jéssica Alessandra-Perini, Jamila Alessandra Perini, Karina Cristina Rodrigues-Baptista, Roberto Soares de Moura, Antonio Palumbo Junior, Thiago Alves dos Santos, Pergentino José Cunha Souza, Luiz Eurico Nasciutti and Daniel Escorsim Machado

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:116

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Bupleurum yinchowense Shan et Y. Li is widely used to treat depressive and anxiety disorders for hundreds of years in China. Total saikosaponins (TSS) is the major ingredient of Bupleurum yinchowense. A-amino-3-h...

    Authors: Xiuping Sun, Xianglei Li, Ruile Pan, Yanfeng Xu, Qiong Wang and Mingjing Song

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:117

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a polygenic disease requiring a multipronged therapeutic approach. In the current scenario, the use of polyherbals is increasing among the diabetics. MD-1, a poly herbal formulation is...

    Authors: Srivani Telapolu, Mangathayaru Kalachavedu, Alan Mathew Punnoose and Dwarakanath Bilikere

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:113

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) plays a beneficial role in preventing the development of osteoporosis. However, the effects of FLL on estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ expressions...

    Authors: Yu-qing Tang, Cheng Li, Xue-jiao Sun, Yi Liu, Xi-ting Wang, Yu-bo Guo, Li-li Wang, Ru-feng Ma, Jian-zhao Niu, Min Fu, Dong-wei Zhang and Yu Li

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:118

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Influenza infection remains a major health threat for animals and humans which crucially requires effective antiviral remedies. The usage of herbal medications as readily available alternatives for their compa...

    Authors: Parvaneh Mehrbod, Muna A. Abdalla, Emmanuel M. Njoya, Aroke S. Ahmed, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Behrokh Farahmand, Dorcas A. Gado, Mansoureh Tabatabaian, Olubunmi G. Fasanmi, Jacobus N. Eloff, Lyndy J. McGaw and Folorunso O. Fasina

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:112

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and the number of AD patients continues to increase worldwide. Components of the germ layer and bran of Brown rice (BR) help maintain good health an...

    Authors: Michiaki Okuda, Yuki Fujita, Takuya Katsube, Hiromasa Tabata, Katsumi Yoshino, Michio Hashimoto and Hachiro Sugimoto

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:110

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Antrodia cinnamomea is an indigenous medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, commonly used for the treatment of cancers and inflammatory disorders. 4-acetylantroquinonol B (4AAQB) is one of the active component isolated fr...

    Authors: Chien-Hsin Chang, Chun-Chieh Hsu, An-Sheng Lee, Shih-Wei Wang, Kung-Tin Lin, Wei-Luen Chang, Hui-Chin Peng, Wen-Chiung Huang and Ching-Hu Chung

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:108

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Dependence on antipsycotic drugs like aripriprazole (ARI) is increasing at alarming rate, hence, this study was undertaken to support the hypothesis that supplementation of Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit) juice havi...

    Authors: Seema Zargar, Abdul-Rahman A. Al-Majed and Tanveer A. Wani

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:106

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  27. Content type: Research article

    MicroRNAs(miRNAs)are involved in the initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. ESC, an extract of Stellerachamaejasme L, had been confirmed as a potential anti-tumor extract of Traditional Chinese M...

    Authors: Xiaoni Liu, Shuang Wang, Jianji Xu, Buxin Kou, Dexi Chen, Yajie Wang and Xiaoxin Zhu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:99

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Allium fistulosum (Welsh onion) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of colds, influenza, abdominal pain, headache, and heart disease. This study evaluated the effects of A. fistulosum ethanoli...

    Authors: Yoon-Young Sung, Dong-Seon Kim, Seung-Hyung Kim and Ho Kyoung Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:105

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Neuraminidase (NA) is one of the key surface protein of the influenza virus, and has been established as a primary drug target for anti-influenza therapies. This study aimed to screen bioactive herbal extracts...

    Authors: Jiawei Liu, Mian Zu, Kaotan Chen, Li Gao, Huan Min, Weiling Zhuo, Weiwen Chen and Ailin Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:102

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Apium graveolens L. is a traditional Chinese medicine prescribed as a treatment for hypertension, gout, and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the neuroprotective effects of A. graveolens extract against a P...

    Authors: Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert, Phetcharat Boonruamkaew, Wanida Sukketsiri, Pilaiwanwadee Hutamekalin and Morakot Sroyraya

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:103

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  31. Content type: Research article

    No animal model studies have been conducted in which the efficacy of herbal compounds has been tested against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Very few antibiotics are available for the tre...

    Authors: Chin-Chuan Tsai, Chi-Shiuan Lin, Chun-Ru Hsu, Chiu-Ming Chang, I-Wei Chang, Li-Wei Lin, Chih-Hsin Hung and Jiun-Ling Wang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:96

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of Non small cell lung cancer in which the PI3K/Akt cascade is frequently deregulated. The ubiquitous expression of the PI3K and the frequent inactivation of PTEN...

    Authors: Fazeela Mahaboob Begum S.M., Kalai Chitra, Benin Joseph, Raji Sundararajan and Hemalatha S.

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:104

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Laminaria japonica has frequently been used as a food supplement and drug in traditional oriental medicine. Among the major active constituents responsible for the bioactivities of L. japonica, fucoxanthin (FX) h...

    Authors: Eun Jeong Jang, Sang Chan Kim, Ju-Hee Lee, Jong Rok Lee, Il Kon Kim, Su Youn Baek and Young Woo Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:97

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith belongs to the Zingiberaceae family that is widely distributed throughout the tropics, particularly in Southeast Asia. It is locally known as ‘Lempoyang’ and traditionally used to tre...

    Authors: Asmah Hamid, Farah Wahida Ibrahim, Teoh Hooi Ming, Mohd Nazir Nasrom, Norelina Eusoff, Khairana Husain and Mazlyzam Abdul Latif

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:101

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br is endemic to Southern Africa where it has been traditionally used for cancer and diabetes. In recent times it has been marketed for its reputed (but not proven) anticancer, ant...

    Authors: Siyabulela S. B. N. Ntuli, Wentzel C. A. Gelderblom and David R. Katerere

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:93

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf) and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr leaves are used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Se...

    Authors: Francine Kengne Mediesse, Thaddée Boudjeko, Anantharaju Hasitha, Matharasala Gangadhar, Wilfred Fon Mbacham and Perumal Yogeeswari

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:86

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  37. Content type: Research article

    This study showed phytochemical composition and evaluates the anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of crude extract (CE) and fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves.

    Authors: Tamires Rocha Falcão, Aurigena Antunes de Araújo, Luiz Alberto Lira Soares, Rhayanne Thaís de Moraes Ramos, Isabelle Cristinne Ferraz Bezerra, Magda Rhayanny Assunção Ferreira, Manoel André de Souza Neto, Maria Celeste Nunes Melo, Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo Jr, Andreza Conceição Véras de Aguiar Guerra, Juliana Silva de Medeiros and Gerlane Coelho Bernardo Guerra

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:84

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a commonly used herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been used as an essential tonic to treat various diseases for more than 2000 years. In this study, we aimed to...

    Authors: Ruijuan Zhou, Hongjiu Chen, Junpeng Chen, Xuemei Chen, Yu Wen and Leqin Xu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:83

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Salix aegyptiaca is known for its medicinal properties mainly due to the presence of salicylate compounds. However, it also contains other beneficial phytochemicals such as gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanil...

    Authors: Mohd Nauman, R. K. Kale and Rana P. Singh

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:81

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  40. Content type: Research article

    α-glucosidase is a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus (DM) and α-glucosidase inhibitors play a vital role in the treatments for the disease. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme that cataly...

    Authors: Habib Mosbah, Hassiba Chahdoura, Jannet Kammoun, Malek Besbes Hlila, Hanen Louati, Saoussen Hammami, Guido Flamini, Lotfi Achour and Boulbaba Selmi

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:79

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Semecarpus parvifolia Thw is used as an ingredient of poly herbal decoctions to treat cancer in traditional medicine. The present study aims to investigate the antiproliferative activity on HEp 2 cells by the wat...

    Authors: Preethi Soysa, Panchima Jayarthne and Imali Ranathunga

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:78

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies revealed that Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) are most likely to appear simultaneously in aged people as T2D is a major risk factor fo...

    Authors: Mohan Penumala, Raveendra Babu Zinka, Jeelan Basha Shaik, Suresh Kumar Reddy Mallepalli, Ramakrishna Vadde and Damu Gangaiah Amooru

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:77

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) is reported to exert various immune-activities. To enhance its activity, we fermented C.militaris with Pediococcus pentosaceus ON89A (GRC-ON89A). In this study, we investigated ...

    Authors: Ha-Kyoung Kwon, Woo-Ri Jo and Hye-Jin Park

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:75

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Uses of polyherbal formulations have played a major role in traditional medicine. The present study is focused on the formulations used in traditional Thai folkloric medicine as tonics or bracers. Twenty docum...

    Authors: Wipawee Chanthasri, Nuntitporn Puangkeaw, Nongluk Kunworarath, Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Surasak Limsuwan, Katesarin Maneenoon, Piyapong Choochana and Sasitorn Chusri

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:73

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Cumulated evidence reveals that glial cells in the spinal cord play an important role in the development of chronic neuropathic pain and are also complicated in the analgesic effect of EA intervention. But the...

    Authors: Jun-ying Wang, Yong-hui Gao, Li-na Qiao, Jian-liang Zhang, Cheng-Lin Duan-mu, Ya-xia Yan, Shu-ping Chen and Jun-ling Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:74

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related death and its incidence has risen steadily. Although anticancer drugs have been developed based on the new molecular findings, the drugs have pr...

    Authors: Maiyon Park, Danielle Upton, Melodie Blackmon, Valerie Dixon, Scott Craver, Dawn Neal and Derek Perkins

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:71

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Spinacia oleracea is an important dietary vegetable in India and throughout the world and has many beneficial effects. It is cultivated globally. However, its effect on osteoarthritis that mainly targets the cart...

    Authors: Dharmendra Choudhary, Priyanka Kothari, Ashish Kumar Tripathi, Sonu Singh, Sulekha Adhikary, Naseer Ahmad, Sudhir Kumar, Kapil Dev, Vijay Kumar Mishra, Shubha Shukla, Rakesh Maurya, Prabhat R. Mishra and Ritu Trivedi

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:69

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Zanthoxylum armatum DC is an important medicinal plant of south East Asia, and has been used to treat various ailments in traditional medicine including diabetes. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo ...

    Authors: Fiaz Alam, Qazi Najam us Saqib and Mohammad Ashraf

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:68

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Traditional healing practice is an important and integral part of healthcare systems in almost all countries of the world. Very few studies have addressed the holistic scenario of traditional healing practices...

    Authors: Md. Imdadul Haque, A. B. M. Alauddin Chowdhury, Md. Shahjahan and Md. Golam Dostogir Harun

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:62

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  50. Content type: Research article

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Although the causes of PD pathogenesis remain incomplete, some evidences has suggested that oxidative stress ...

    Authors: Joana Silva, Celso Alves, Susete Pinteus, Susana Mendes and Rui Pedrosa

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 18:58

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