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Basic research

Edited by Jacobus Eloff, Victor Kuete and Insop Shim

This section covers pre-clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies related to interventions or resources in the complementary medicine field, including the isolation and purification of herbal remedies, toxicological studies and research into the biological mechanisms of action of the intervention or resource.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Ethanol withdrawal (EtOHW) anxiety is a crucial risk factor for alcoholic relapse. The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) acts upon its receptor (NOP) to antagonize corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF...

    Authors: Li Bo Li, Young Woo Kim, Yu Hua Wang, Li Bai, Xiao Dong Zhu, Zheng Lin Zhao, Chul Won Lee, Yu Jiao, Tong Wu, Zhen Zhen Cai, Sang Chan Kim, Won G. An, Chae Ha Yang, Guang Cheng Cui and Rong Jie Zhao

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:147

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  2. Content type: Research article

    There is increasing interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries to substitute synthetic chemicals with naturally occurring compounds possessing bioactive properties. Plants are valuable sources of bioac...

    Authors: Maria Rezzoug, Boulanouar Bakchiche, Abdelaziz Gherib, Ascrizzi Roberta, FlaminiGuido, Özge Kilinçarslan, Ramazan Mammadov and Sanaa K. Bardaweel

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:146

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Previous research findings support an antimicrobial effect of polyphenols against a variety of pathogens, but there is no evidence of this effect against periodontal pathogens in complex biofilms. The purpose ...

    Authors: María C. Sánchez, Honorato Ribeiro-Vidal, Adelaida Esteban-Fernández, Begoña Bartolomé, Elena Figuero, María V. Moreno-Arribas, Mariano Sanz and David Herrera

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:145

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Moringa oleifera, also known as horseradish tree or drumstick tree, has strong antioxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential effect of Moringa oleifera stem extract (MOSE) on catarac...

    Authors: Lei Qi, Yu Zhou, Weijie Li, Mali Zheng, Ruisheng Zhong, Xin Jin and Yuan Lin

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:144

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Constipation, a common health problem, causes discomfort and affects the quality of life. This study intended to evaluate the potential laxative effect of triple fermented barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) extract (FBe...

    Authors: Jong-Min Lim, Young Dae Kim, Chang-Hyun Song, Su-Jin Park, Dong-Chan Park, Hyung-Rae Cho, Go-Woon Jung, Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir, Sae Kwang Ku and Jae-Suk Choi

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:143

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Microbial species in the brine pools of the Red Sea and the brine pool-seawater interfaces are exposed to high temperature, high salinity, low oxygen levels and high concentrations of heavy metals. As adaptati...

    Authors: Luke Esau, Guishan Zhang, Sunil Sagar, Ulrich Stingl, Vladimir B. Bajic and Mandeep Kaur

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:142

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains an important global health issue but the gap between AMR and development of new antimicrobials is increasing. Plant extracts may have good activity per se or may be sourc...

    Authors: Ibukun M. Famuyide, Abimbola O. Aro, Folorunso O. Fasina, Jacobus N. Eloff and Lyndy J. McGaw

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:141

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Cholera is one of the most deadly diarrheal diseases that require new treatments. We investigated the neutralization of cholera toxin by five plant extracts obtained from the Rosaceae family that have been tra...

    Authors: Magdalena Komiazyk, Malgorzata Palczewska, Izabela Sitkiewicz, Slawomir Pikula and Patrick Groves

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:140

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Several studies have found that caffeic acid (CA), a well-known phytochemical, displays important antioxidant and anti-cancer activities. However, no evidence exists on the protective effect and its mechanisms...

    Authors: Sung-Yong Yang, Min Cheol Pyo, Mi-Hyun Nam and Kwang-Won Lee

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:139

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Oxymatrine (OM), a quinolizidine alkaloid extracted from a herb Sophorae Flavescentis Radix, has been used to treat liver fibrotic diseases. However, the mechanism of its anti-fibrosis effects is still unclear. T...

    Authors: Li-Ying Song, Yu-Tao Ma, Wei-Jin Fang, Yang He, Jia-Li Wu, Shan-Ru Zuo, Zhen-Zhen Deng, Sheng-Feng Wang and Shi-Kun Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:138

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The Cree of Eeyou Istchee (James Bay area of northern Quebec) suffer from a high rate of diabetes and its complications partly due to the introduction of the western lifestyle within their culture.

    Authors: Ashleigh D. Downing, Hoda M. Eid, Andrew Tang, Fida Ahmed, Cory S. Harris, Pierre S. Haddad, Timothy Johns, John T. Arnason, Steffany A. L. Bennett and Alain Cuerrier

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:137

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) has been suggested to be useful for the prevention of diabetes. Esculeoside A is the main saponin compounds in tomatoes. This study investigated the hypoglycemic effec...

    Authors: Ziming Yang, Li Zhang, Jinglei Liu, Fenglai Lu, Lei Wang, Yueyuan Chen and Dianpeng Li

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:136

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Sexual problems are widespread and adversely affect the interpersonal relationships and the quality of life. Currently, synthetic drugs improving sexual function are available, but expenditures for such agents...

    Authors: Yi Zhang, Feixian Zhou and Fahuan Ge

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:135

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Calotropis gigantea (CG) is a tall and waxy flower that is used as a traditional remedy for fever, indigestion, rheumatism, leprosy, and leukoderma. However, the precise mechanisms of its anticancer effects have ...

    Authors: Jiyon Lee, Hui-Ju Jang, Hyunwoo Chun, Thu-Huyen Pham, Yesol Bak, Jong-Woon Shin, Hang Jin, Yong-In Kim, Hyung Won Ryu, Sei Ryang Oh and Do-Young Yoon

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:134

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Nigerian Cannabis sativa (hemp) causes male gonadotoxicity by inducing hyperprolactinemia, down-regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, and oxidative stress. Benin republic hemp has been preferred b...

    Authors: Abdullateef Isiaka Alagbonsi, Luqman Aribidesi Olayaki, Halimat Amin Abdulrahim, Thomson Sijuade Adetona and Gbemileke Tobiloba Akinyemi

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:132

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Angoroside C, cinnamic acid, and harpagoside are bioactive constituents in Scrophularia ningpoensis. Currently, an infrared-assisted extraction (IRAE) method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography wi...

    Authors: Lina Su, Yinghui Deng, Nianzu Chen, Xiuwen Zhang and Taomin Huang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:130

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Green tea has polyphenols like flavonoids and catechins; mainly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epicatechin (EC), out of which EGCG is of higher abundan...

    Authors: Ashlesha P. Pandit, Shreyas R. Joshi, Preeti S. Dalal and Vinita C. Patole

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:129

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Salvia officinalis has been used successfully for the treatment of hot flushes and excessive sweating during menopause. However, modes of actions have not been elucidated conclusively. We explored its pharmacolog...

    Authors: Carsten Tober and Roland Schoop

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:128

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Xin-Ji-Er-Kang (XJEK) is a Chinese herbal formula, which has been reported to exert effective protection against cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and myocarditis.

    Authors: Ling Ding, Pan Cheng, Li Wang, Juan Hu, Yong-xue Zhang, Guo-wei Cai, Guang-yao Huang and Shan Gao

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:127

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID). Shenzhu Capsule (SZC) is a Chinese herbal formula, which is composed of Rensh...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Wuwen Feng, Shiyang Zhang, Lu Chen, Fei Tang, Yongcheng Sheng, Hui Ao and Cheng Peng

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:126

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Troxerutin (TRX), a naturally occurring flavonoid in various fruits, has been reported to exhibit numerous pharmacological and biological activities in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms unde...

    Authors: Ying Li, Pan Ma, Jin Fu, Jingjing Wu and Xue Wu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:124

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Infectious diseases, particularly those due to multi-drug resistant bacterial strains are almost impossible to cure globally. In this study we investigated the inhibitory effects of Azadirachta indica A. Juss sec...

    Authors: Sunday O. Okoh, Omobola O. Okoh and Anthony I. Okoh

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:123

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The regenerative capacity of the liver is crucial for the host to survive after serious hepatic injuries, tumor resection, or living donor liver transplantation. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have been reporte...

    Authors: Hua Zhong, Hao Wu, He Bai, Menghao Wang, Jian Wen, Jianping Gong, Mingyong Miao and Fangchao Yuan

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:122

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Albizia adianthifolia (Schum.) is medicinally used in Cameroon to manage bronchitis and skin diseases. Our previous study documented the antibacterial potential of its roots’ methanol extract. In this study, meth...

    Authors: Cedric F. Tchinda, Gaiëlle Sonfack, Ingrid K. Simo, İlhami Çelik, Igor K. Voukeng, Blaise K. Nganou, Gabin T. M. Bitchagno, Sultan Funda Ekti, Mathieu Tene, Pierre Tane, Veronique P. Beng and Victor Kuete

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:120

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen which often causes nosocomial and community attained infections. These infections steadily increased after evolving the resistance due to indecorous practice of antib...

    Authors: Neelam Kumari, Snehlata Singh, Vandana Kumari, Siddhartha Kumar, Vinay Kumar and Antresh Kumar

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:119

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Hirudin, an extract from Hirudo spp., is an anticoagulant used to treat a variety of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Currently, hirudin has to be used at high dosages to treat DN because it p...

    Authors: Hongwu Wang, Huantian Cui, Lan Lin, Yue Ji, Qing Ni, Junchen Li, Jianli Pang, Gongyan Bing and Yuhong Bian

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:118

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) is a traditional herbal tea in Penghu Island, Taiwan. Its extract is traditionally been used as an antipyretic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory remedy in folk medicine among loca...

    Authors: Shibu Marthandam Asokan, Ruoh-Yuh Wang, Tsu-Han Hung and Wan-Teng Lin

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:117

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Allium species are magnificently nutritious and are commonly used as a part of the diet in Iran. They have health enhancing benefits including anticancer properties due to the presence of numerous bioactive co...

    Authors: Kosar Vafaee, Soudeh Dehghani, Raheleh Tahmasvand, Farzaneh Saeed Abadi, Saeed Irian and Mona Salimi

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:116

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Skin burn wound is a notable medical burden worldwide. Rapid and effective treatment of burnt skin is vital to fasten wound closure and healing properly. Amniotic graft and Aloe vera are widely used as wound mana...

    Authors: Md Shaifur Rahman, Rashedul Islam, Md Masud Rana, Lucas-Sebastian Spitzhorn, Mohammad Shahedur Rahman, James Adjaye and Sikder M. Asaduzzaman

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:115

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Lactobacillus plantarum, a major species of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), are capable of producing postbiotic metabolites (PM) with prominent probiotic effects that have been documented extensively for rats, poultr...

    Authors: Li-Oon Chuah, Hooi Ling Foo, Teck Chwen Loh, Noorjahan Banu Mohammed Alitheen, Swee Keong Yeap, Nur Elina Abdul Mutalib, Raha Abdul Rahim and Khatijah Yusoff

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:114

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) are immature precursors of the central nervous system (CNS), with self-renewal and multipotential differentiation capacities. These are regulated by endogenous and exogenous...

    Authors: Reza Mahmoudi, Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Maryam Tajali Ardakani, Yahya Jand, Hassan Azari, Jafar Nikbakht and Amir Ghanbari

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:113

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The plant Holarrhena floribunda (H. floribunda; G. Don) is indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa and is traditionally used to treat several ailments. The present study was carried out to isolate and characterize bioac...

    Authors: J. A. Badmus, O. E. Ekpo, A. A. Hussein, M. Meyer and D. C. Hiss

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:112

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Atherosclerosis is a condition with the vascular accumulation of lipid plaques, and its main major contributing factor is endothelial injury induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Salidroside (S...

    Authors: Zhongsheng Zhu, Jinyu Li and Xiaorong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:111

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Many studies on the effect of saponin-rich Codonopsis lanceolata as a bioactive source for improving physical health have been performed. C. lanceolata contains triterpenoid saponins, including lancemasides. Thes...

    Authors: Young Seok Lee, HeeEun Kim, Jinhye Kim, Geun Hee Seol and Kwang-Won Lee

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:110

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from various Berberis species which is widely used in East Asia for a wide range of symptoms. Recently, neuroprotective effects of berberine in Alzheimer’s disease ...

    Authors: Ning-Ning Yuan, Cui-Zan Cai, Ming-Yue Wu, Huan-Xing Su, Min Li and Jia-Hong Lu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:109

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis is a deadly disease caused by Mycobacterium species. The use of medicinal plants is an ancient global practice for the treatment and prevention of diverse ailments including tuberculosis. The aim of ...

    Authors: Abimbola O. Aro, Jean P. Dzoyem, Maurice D. Awouafack, Mamoalosi A. Selepe, Jacobus N. Eloff and Lyndy J. McGaw

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:108

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Excessive activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and down-regulation of Sirt1/Smad3 deacetylation pathway play a significant role in the evolution of renal fibrosis. In China, it has been well known that Chinese her...

    Authors: Meng Wang, Liuyi Yang, Jing Yang and Chen Wang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:107

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The therapeutic use of Helleborus niger L. is manifold due to its specific phytochemical composition. Two compound groups, the ranunculin derivates including protoanemonin and the steroidal saponins, are also ass...

    Authors: Jennifer E. Felenda, Claudia Turek, Nora Mörbt, Anja Herrick, Margit B. Müller and Florian C. Stintzing

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:105

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Despite advances in medical treatments, the proportion of the population suffering from alopecia is increasing, creating a need for new treatments to control hair loss and prevent balding. Treatments based on ...

    Authors: Gun-He Nam, Kyung-Jo Jo, Ye-Seul Park, Hye Won Kawk, Je-Geun Yoo, Jin Dong Jang, Sang Moon Kang, Sang-Yong Kim and Young-Min Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:104

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Calothamnus quadrifidus R.Br has many traditional uses and there are few reports about its chemical and biological activities. So our aim is to isolate the triterpenoidal compounds from dichloromethane fraction (...

    Authors: H. A. Ibrahim, M. R. Elgindi, R. R. Ibrahim and D. G. El-Hosari

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:102

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Physalin A isolated from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii has been known to have many pharmacological properties. However, its effect through the Nrf2 pathway has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, ...

    Authors: Ji Min Shin, Kyung-Mi Lee, Hee Ju Lee, Ji Ho Yun and Chu Won Nho

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:101

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases including diabetes, cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases. Angiogenesis nourishes adipose tissues and contributes to obesity; it can be prevented by suppress...

    Authors: Muhammad Imran Khan, Jin Hyuk Shin and Jong Deog Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:100

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Current therapeutic approaches to treat metastatic breast cancer, although effective, have shown many inadvertent side effects such as genotoxicity due to a lack of selectivity. Thus, these treatment plans are...

    Authors: Christopher Nguyen, Kiruthika Baskaran, Alaina Pupulin, Ivan Ruvinov, Ola Zaitoon, Sahibjot Grewal, Benjamin Scaria, Ali Mehaidli, Caleb Vegh and Siyaram Pandey

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:98

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The brain is susceptible to methylmercury toxicity, which causes irreversible damage to neurons and glia and the leaf extract Dendropanax morbifera Léveille (DML) has various biological functions in the nervous s...

    Authors: Woosuk Kim, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Jong Whi Kim, Kyu Ri Hahn, Hyun Jung Kwon, Miyoung Yoo, Sanghee Lee, Sung Min Nam, Yeo Sung Yoon, Dae Won Kim and In Koo Hwang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:94

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  45. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the effects of the Alisma and Rhizoma decoction on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and to further shed light on the underlying mechanisms of the actions of the Alisma and Rhizoma decoction.

    Authors: Lijun Xu, Menghui Jing, Lijuan Yang, Lei Jin, Peiqiang Gong, Juan Lu, Hui Lin, Jinping Wang, Qin Cao and Yuanye Jiang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:92

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The extract of Celastrus orbiculatus (COE) have been studied for anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity and anti-cancer effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism by which COE inhibits

    Authors: Yaodong Zhu, Lei Liu, Lei Hu, Wenqing Dong, Mei Zhang, Yanqing Liu and Ping Li

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:91

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Papaver nudicaule belongs to the Papaveraceae family, which is planted as an annual herbaceous species generally for ornamental purpose. Papaver rhoeas in the same family has been reported to have various pharmac...

    Authors: Jae-Hyeon Oh, Miyong Yun, Dain Park, In Jin Ha, Chang-Kug Kim, Do-Wan Kim, Eun-Ok Kim and Seok-Geun Lee

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:90

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Rubus coreanus fruit (RF) has been used as a traditional medicine formulation to treat various diseases including diarrhea, asthma, and cancer in East Asia (Korea, China, and Japan). RF, which is native to Korea,...

    Authors: Kyung Hye Seo, Ji Yeon Lee, Jeong-Yong Park, Gwi Yeong Jang, Hyung Don Kim, Young- Seob Lee and Dong Hwi Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:89

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has various pharmacological actions, which includes antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities. The superoxide and consequently NADPH oxidase (Nox) are relevant targets invo...

    Authors: A. S. Isoyan, K. V. Simonyan, R. M. Simonyan, M. A. Babayan, G. M. Simonyan, V. A. Chavushyan and M. A. Simonyan

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:88

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