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Basic research

Edited by Jacobus Eloff, Victor Kuete and Insop Shim

This section covers pre-clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies related to interventions or resources in the complementary medicine field, including the isolation and purification of herbal remedies, toxicological studies and research into the biological mechanisms of action of the intervention or resource.

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  1. Obesity and its associated health conditions, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are worldwide health problems. It has been shown that insulin resistance is associate...

    Authors: Ting-Chen Chang, Hao Chiang, Yu-Heng Lai, Yu-Ling Huang, Hsiu-Chen Huang, Yu-Chih Liang, Hui-Kang Liu and Cheng Huang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:368

    Content type: Research article

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  2. ChondroT, a new herbal medication, consists of Angelica grosseserrata Maxim., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Angelica gigas Nakai, Clematis terniflora var. manshurica (Rupr.) Ohwi, and Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (6:...

    Authors: Jiwon Jeong, Kiljoon Bae, Jihoon Kim, Chanhun Choi, Changsu Na, Myeongkyu Park, Youngran Kim, Chang-Seob Seo and Seon-Jong Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:367

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The edible fruit Annona cherimola has previously shown many nutritional and medicinal properties. The current study evaluates the anti-cancer and anti-proliferative properties of Annona cherimola ethanolic leaf e...

    Authors: Carl Ammoury, Maria Younes, Marianne El Khoury, Mohammad H. Hodroj, Tony Haykal, Peter Nasr, Marilyne Sily, Robin I. Taleb, Rita Sarkis, Rana Khalife and Sandra Rizk

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:365

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The body responds to overnutrition by converting stem cells to adipocytes. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown polyphenols and other natural compounds to be anti-adipogenic, presumably due in part to their...

    Authors: Woo Nam, Seok Hyun Nam, Sung Phil Kim, Carol Levin and Mendel Friedman

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:364

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Infertility and gonadal dysfunction are well known side-effects by cancer treatment in males. In particularly, chemotherapy and radiotherapy induced testicular damage, resulting in prolonged azoospermia. Howev...

    Authors: Kumpei Takahashi, Kenta Nagahori, Ning Qu, Miyuki Kuramasu, Yoshie Hirayanagi, Shogo Hayashi, Yuki Ogawa, Naoyuki Hatayama, Hayato Terayama, Kaori Suyama, Shuichi Hirai, Kou Sakabe and Masahiro Itoh

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:362

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Moringa oleifera Lam. is a commonly used plant in herbal medicine and has various reported bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and antidiabetes. It is rich in nutrients and polyphenols. T...

    Authors: Nur Zahirah Abd Rani, Endang Kumolosasi, Malina Jasamai, Jamia Azdina Jamal, Kok Wai Lam and Khairana Husain

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:361

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Lingguizhugan decoction (LGZG), an ancient Chinese herbal formula, has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases in eastern Asia. We investigated whether LGZG has protective activity and the mechanism underly...

    Authors: Xueping Li, Guangmin Xu, Shujun Wei, Baocheng Zhang, Huan Yao, Yuchi Chen, Weiwei Liu, Baojia Wang, Juan Zhao and Yongxiang Gao

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:360

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang (YHS) is a well-known Chinese flowering herbal plant commonly used for centuries in functional food and traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, we have identified and char...

    Authors: Li Wan, Yang Zhao, Qun Zhang, Guangyi Gao, Shanlan Zhang, Yong Gao, Xiaofei Chen and Xiaoping Qian

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:359

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Shenxian-Shengmai (SXSM) Oral Liquid is a CFDA-approved patent Chinese Herbal medicine, which has been clinically used for the treatment of bradycardia. However, its active components and action mechanism rema...

    Authors: Jiaming Gao, Taiyi Wang, Xi Yao, Weiwei Xie, Xianru Shi, Shuang He, Tao Zhao, Chunhua Wang and Yan Zhu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:357

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis are two herbs that compose Danggui Buxue Tang (an herbal formula for treatment of anemia diseases). In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism and effective ta...

    Authors: Juan Liu, Jie Wei, Changzhi Wang, Xiaoying Meng, Hening Chen, Peiying Deng, Meiyier Huandike, Huijie Zhang, Xue Li and Limin Chai

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:356

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) was reported to play a role in improving diabetic nephropathy (DN), however, the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether AS-I...

    Authors: Yuyan Fan, Hongyu Fan, Bin Zhu, Yilun Zhou, Qingshan Liu and Ping Li

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:355

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta and clinically manifested mainly with motor dysfunctions. Pl...

    Authors: Uzma Saleem, Zohaib Raza, Fareeha Anwar, Zunera Chaudary and Bashir Ahmad

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:352

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) is an essential enzyme for the HIV replication, and therefore, it is an importa...

    Authors: Chanin Sillapachaiyaporn, Sunita Nilkhet, Alison T. Ung and Siriporn Chuchawankul

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:351

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The use of deer velvet antler (DVA) as a potent traditional medicine ingredient goes back for over 2000 years in Asia. Increasingly, though, DVA is being included as a high protein functional food ingredient i...

    Authors: Stephen R. Haines, Mark J. McCann, Anita J. Grosvenor, Ancy Thomas, Alasdair Noble and Stefan Clerens

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:350

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Ocimum species (Lamiaceae) has been traditionally used for treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, coughs, sore throat, and wound healing. The Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effect...

    Authors: Naima Eftekhar, Ali Moghimi, Nema Mohammadian Roshan, Saeideh Saadat and Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:349

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Ficus palmata (Fig), are distributed in different parts of the world, and are used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments including inflammation, tumor, epilepsy, jaundice, influenza and bacillary dyse...

    Authors: Muhammad Bilal Riaz, Arif-ullah Khan and Neelam Gul Qazi

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:348

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. has been successfully used for the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema and pruritus. However, the anti-psoriatic effect of this plant has not unti...

    Authors: Minjee Choi, Jun Koo Yi, Si-Yong Kim, Jung Hyun Ryu, Jinhee Lee, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Dongjun Kim, MyoungOk Kim, Hyungwoo Kim, Sung Hyun Kim, Seong-Kyoon Choi and Zae Young Ryoo

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:347

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Influenza A virus (IAV) is still a major health threat. The clinical manifestations of this infection are related to immune dysregulation, which causes morbidity and mortality. The usage of traditional medicat...

    Authors: Parvaneh Mehrbod, Samad Nejad Ebrahimi, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Fatemeh Eskandari, Jacobus N. Eloff, Lyndy J. McGaw and Folorunso O. Fasina

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:346

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Cuphea ignea is one of the herbal resources belonging to Lythraceae family. Some species of this family have been used traditionally in South and Central America’s folk medicine for treating stomach disorders. Th...

    Authors: Amria M. Mousa, Nermin M. El-Sammad, Sherien K. Hassan, Abd El Nasser A. Madboli, Amani N. Hashim, Eman S. Moustafa, Sherien M. Bakry and Elsayed A. Elsayed

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:345

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Mangosteen is a native fruit from Southeast Asia. It is rich in phenolic compounds such as xanthones, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. Mangosteen pericarp extract showed inhibitory activity towards pancreatic ...

    Authors: Noratirah Shazlin Muhamad Adyab, Asmah Rahmat, Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir, Hawa Jaafar, Radhiah Shukri and Nurul Shazini Ramli

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:344

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Chloranthus serratus (Chloranthaceae) has been used to treat bruises, rheumatoid and bone pain. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of C. serratus in vitro have not been fully elucidated. The present study ...

    Authors: Shuping Sun, Yunyan Du, Chuanliu Yin, Xiaoguo Suo, Rui Wang, Rongping Xia and Xiaoping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:343

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor (Tv, Turkey Tail) is often prepared for consumption as a powder from the fungal mycelium and the fermented substrate on which it grew. The goal for this study was to eva...

    Authors: Kathleen F. Benson, Paul Stamets, Renee Davis, Regan Nally, Alex Taylor, Sonya Slater and Gitte S. Jensen

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:342

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (C. nutans) is a species of in Acanthaceae family and primarily used in South East Asian countries. C. nutans is well known as Sabah snake grass in Malaysia, and its leaves have diverse...

    Authors: Nik Mohd Afizan Nik Abd Rahman, M. Y. Nurliyana, M. N. F. Natasha Nur Afiqah, Mohd Azuraidi Osman, Muhajir Hamid and Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:340

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The dried fruits of Forsythia suspensa has generally been used to clear heat and detoxify in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine. Oxaliplatin is a first-line treatment chemotherapeutic agent for advanced colo...

    Authors: Jin-Mu Yi, Sarah Shin, No Soo Kim and Ok-Sun Bang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:339

    Content type: Research article

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  25. To investigate the potential of Catharanthus roseus leaf aqueous crude extract (CRACE) as a regulator of adipocyte development and function.

    Authors: Anuj Kumar Borah, Archana Singh, Rafika Yasmin, Robin Doley, Venkata Satish Kumar Mattaparthi and Sougata Saha

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:338

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) has been shown to be effective in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was ...

    Authors: Qiuke Hou, Yongquan Huang, Zhaoyang Zhu, Liu Liao, Xinlin Chen, Quanbin Han and Fengbin Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:337

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Psoriasis, a recurrent, chronic inflammatory disorder of skin, is a common problem in middle age and elderly people. Thymoquinone (TQ), a lipid soluble benzoquinone is the major active ingredient of volatile o...

    Authors: Poonam Negi, Ishita Sharma, Chetna Hemrajani, Charul Rathore, Alpna Bisht, Kaisar Raza and O. P. Katare

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:334

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Monotropein, astragalin, and spiraeoside (MAS) are active compounds extracted from medicinal herbs; monotropein from Morinda officinalis How (Rubiaceae), astragalin (kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) from Cuscuta chin...

    Authors: Keshab Kumar Karna, Bo Ram Choi, Jae Hyung You, Yu Seob Shin, Wan Shou Cui, Sung Won Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Chul Young Kim, Hye Kyung Kim and Jong Kwan Park

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:333

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Zingiber zerumbet rhizome and its bioactive metabolites have previously been reported to exhibit innumerable pharmacological properties particularly anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the 80% eth...

    Authors: Nabilah Mohammad Yaqoob Akhtar, Ibrahim Jantan, Laiba Arshad and Md. Areeful Haque

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:331

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Endophytic fungi are a proven source of bioactive secondary metabolites that may provide lead compounds for novel drug discovery. In this study, crude extracts from fungal endophytes isolated from Datura stramoni...

    Authors: Kudzanai Ian Tapfuma, Nkemdinma Uche-Okereafor, Tendani Edith Sebola, Raeesa Hussan, Lukhanyo Mekuto, Maya Mellisa Makatini, Ezekiel Green and Vuyo Mavumengwana

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:330

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a modern refractory disease, and its etiology has been difficult to discern. Studies have shown that UC is closely associated with the gut microbiota. Garidisan is composed of wild p...

    Authors: Ling-yan Pei, Yu-shi Ke, Huan-hu Zhao, Wei-zhi Liu, Lin Wang, Chao Jia, Meng-ni Shi, Qian-hui Fu, Jian Cui and Shu-chun Li

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:329

    Content type: Research article

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  32. It has been testified that Diabetes mellitus (DM) has a close association with chronic inflammation and Toll-like Receptors (TLRs), and DM could be prevented by mulberry leaf. Therefore, a hypothesis came into...

    Authors: Simin Tian, Min Wang, Chenyue Liu, Hongbin Zhao and Baosheng Zhao

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:326

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint disease with characteristics that involve the progressive degradation of articular cartilage and resulting chronic pain. Previously, we reported that Astragalus membran...

    Authors: Doo Jin Choi, Soo-Im Choi, Bo-Ram Choi, Young-Seob Lee, Dae Young Lee and Geum Soog Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:325

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Carpinus tschonoskii (CT) has been previously studied for various activities in the improvement of skin diseases. In the present study, we examined the in vitro anti-acne vulgaris (AV) effect of CT leaves (CTL) a...

    Authors: Jun Yin, In Hyoek Hwang and Min Won Lee

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:323

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Cerebral ischemia is the second-leading cause of death and the main cause of permanent adult disabilities worldwide. Qingkailing (QKL) injection, a patented Chinese medicine approved by the China Food and Drug...

    Authors: Chongyang Ma, Xueqian Wang, Tian Xu, Xue Yu, Shuang Zhang, Shuling Liu, Yushan Gao, Shuning Fan, Changxiang Li, Changming Zhai, Fafeng Cheng and Qingguo Wang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:320

    Content type: Research article

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  36. ChondroT is a complex herbal medicine consisting of water extracts of Ostericum koreanum (Maxim.) Kitag., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Angelica gigas Nakai, Clematis manshurica Rupr., and Phellodendron amurense Rupr...

    Authors: Rui Hong Guo, Seon-Jong Kim, Chan-hun Choi, Chang-su Na, Bok Yun Kang and Young Ran Kim

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:319

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Altered cellular metabolism is considered to be one of the hallmarks of cancer (Coller, Am J Pathol 184:4–17, 2014; Kim and Bae, Curr Opin Hematol 25:52–59, 2018). However, few studies have investigated the ro...

    Authors: Wei Liu, Zi-ming Zhao, Yuan-liang Liu, Hua-feng Pan and Li-zhu Lin

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:318

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapy drug for malignant tumors. The clinical application of DOX is limited due to its dosage relative cardiotoxicity. Oxidative damage and cardiac inflammation appear to be invol...

    Authors: Sheng Zhang, Zhen-Qiang You, Lin Yang, Li-Li Li, You-Ping Wu, Li-Qiang Gu and Yan-Fei Xin

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:317

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Icariin (ICA) is the major active ingredient extracted from Chinese herbal medicine Epimedium, which has the effects of improving cardiovascular function, inducing tumor cell differentiation and increasing bon...

    Authors: Lingli Hu, Lulu Li, Hongying Zhang, Qiuping Li, Shan Jiang, Jian Qiu, Jing Sun and Jingcheng Dong

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:316

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a main cause of Gram-negative infection, particularly in patients with compromised immunity. High rates of resistance to antibiotics are associated with nosocomial infections cau...

    Authors: Molly Mombeshora and Stanley Mukanganyama

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:315

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Inflammation is recognized as the key pathological mechanism of type 2 diabetes. The hypoglyceamic effects of berberine (BBR) are related to the inhibition of the inflammatory response, but the mechanism is no...

    Authors: Jing Gong, Jingbin Li, Hui Dong, Guang Chen, Xin Qin, Meilin Hu, Fen Yuan, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Shujun Jiang, Yan Zhao, Wenya Huang, Zhaoyi Huang and Fuer Lu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:314

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Jianpi-yangwei (JPYW), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), helps to nourish the stomach and spleen and is primarily used to treat functional declines related to aging. This study aimed to explore the antiagi...

    Authors: Liling Zeng, Zhimin Yang, Tianchan Yun, Shaoyi Fan, Zhong Pei, Ziwen Chen, Chen Sun and Fuping Xu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:313

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Cervical cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality in females. Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen (Rom.Caill.) Stapf ex Hook. f. is the most widely recognized medicinal herb for its remedial e...

    Authors: Eun Suk Son, Se-Hee Kim, Young Ock Kim, Young Eun Lee, Sun Young Kyung, Sung Hwan Jeong, Yu Jin Kim and Jeong-Woong Park

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:312

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Heracleum moellendorffii roots (HM-R) have been long treated for inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, backache and fever. However, an anti-inflammatory effect and the specific mechanism of HM-R were not yet c...

    Authors: Ha Na Kim, Jeong Dong Kim, Joo Ho Yeo, Ho-Jun Son, Su Bin Park, Gwang Hun Park, Hyun Ji Eo and Jin Boo Jeong

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:310

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Sheng Mai San (SMS) has been proven to exhibit cardio-protective effects. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms of SMS on hyperglycaemia (HG)-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cells.

    Authors: Bing Pang, Li-Wei Shi, Li-juan Du, Yun-Chu Li, Mei-Zhen Zhang and Qing Ni

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:309

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Dental caries is a biofilm-diet-dependent worldwide public health problem, and approaches against microorganisms in cariogenic biofilms are necessary.

    Authors: Sabrina M. Ribeiro, Érick D. O. Fratucelli, Paula C. P. Bueno, Marlene Kelly V. de Castro, Amanda Alcalá Francisco, Alberto José Cavalheiro and Marlise I. Klein

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:308

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. (Asphodelaceae) has traditional reputability in treatment of diarrhea and constipation but no scientific study has been reported for its gastrointestinal effects. Present study was con...

    Authors: Naveed Aslam and Khalid Hussain Janbaz

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:307

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The chemical composition of many essential oils indicates that they have sedative and hypnotic effects, but there is still a lack of systematic studies on the sedative and hypnotic effects of essential oils. I...

    Authors: Yu Zhong, Qin Zheng, Pengyi Hu, Xiaoying Huang, Ming Yang, Guilin Ren, Qing Du, Jun Luo, Kenan Zhang, Jing Li, Haixia Wu, Yuanyuan Guo and Shanshan Liu

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:306

    Content type: Research article

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  49. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet (BP) active compound, BP total saponins (BPTS), on MDA-MB-231 cells, and investigate the underlying mechani...

    Authors: Jian-Wei Dou, Rong-Guo Shang, Xiao-Qin Lei, Kang-Le Li, Zhan-Zi Guo, Kai Ye, Xiao-Juan Yang, Yu-Wei Li, Yun-Yun Zhou, Jia Yao and Qian Huang

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:304

    Content type: Research article

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  50. Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis. It has also been reported to infect oral mucositis lesions in patients who suffer from cancer affecting the head ...

    Authors: Marie-Pier Veilleux and Daniel Grenier

    Citation: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19:303

    Content type: Research article

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