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Table 3 The used herbals for the treatment of infertility in males, the plant’s parts used, Frequency of Citations (FC), Choice values, modes of administration and methods of preparation

From: Herbal remedies used for the treatment of infertility in males and females by traditional healers in the rural areas of the West Bank/Palestine

Scientific names Local names English names Family Voucher numbers Part used and mode of preparation Method of preparation Citations FC, % CV
Ferula hermonis Boiss. شرش الزلوع Hermon ferula Apiaceae Pharm-PCT-1018 Roots/About 50 g of the roasted seeds soaked in 330 ml water for 12 h. The produced infusion is to be given twice a day. Infusion 49 96.08 4.00
Phlomis brachyodon (Boiss.) Zohary ex Rech.f. القصعين (الأذينة قصيرة الأسنان) Short-toothed phlomis Lamiaceae Pharm-PCT-1832 Leaves/Boil about 50 g of leaves in 750 ml water for 5 min. 150 ml of this decoction is to be given orally before each meal. Decoction 45 88.24 3.68
Phoenix dactylifera L. تمر Date or Date Palm Arecaceae Pharm-PCT-1842 Pollen grains/About 1 g of the Date trees pollen grains mixed with one 1 g of royal jelly. This paste to be given 2 h before each sexual intercourse. Paste 44 86.27 3.59
Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roem. الليف Sponge gourd or Egyptian cucumber Cucurbitaceae Pharm-PCT-2806 Fruits/About 5 ml of fruits juice to be given twice daily for two weeks Juice 40 78.43 3.27
Adonis aestivalis L. عين الديك Summer pheasant’s-eye Ranunculaceae Pharm-PCT-23 Leaves/Soak 5 g of the leaves in 400 ml water for 12 h and drink once daily. Infusion 35 68.63 2.86
Ferula communis L. الكلخ الشائع Common giant fennel Apiaceae Pharm-PCT-1016 Rhizomes/Mix 200 g of the rhizomes with 200 g of dried locust insect and 150 ml of olive oil. About 50 g of the produced paste is to be given orally two times daily. Paste 31 60.78 2.53
Myristica fragrans Houtt. جوز الطيب Nutmeg Myristicaceae Pharm-PCT-2716 Seeds/Two drops of the oil of the seeds are to be given with one cup of the Camel milk before sexual intercourse. Oil 26 50.98 2.12
Pinus halepensis Mill. صنوبر Aleppo pine Pinaceae Pharm-PCT-1863 Leaves/Boil about 100 g from the leaves in 100 ml water. 50 ml from this decoction is to be given 6 times daily. Decoction 24 47.06 1.96
Eruca sativa Mill. جرجير Arugula Brassicaceae Pharm-PCT-2786 Seeds/Boil 50 g of the seeds in 100 ml water for 10 min. About 20 ml of this decoction is to be given orally four times daily. Decoction 24 47.06 1.96
Cnicus benedictus L. قنطريون مبارك St. Benedict’s thistle Compositae Pharm-PCT-639 Roots/Boil 100 g from fresh roots in 330 ml water for 10 min. 100 ml of this decoction is to be given orally three times daily after meals. Decoction 23 45.10 1.88
Mandragora officinalis Mill. تفاح المجن Mandrake or Satan’s apple Solanaceae Pharm-PCT-1509 Roots/Mix equal amounts of the roots powder with honey. 30 g of this paste is to be taken orally twice daily. Paste 23 45.10 1.88
Lepidium sativum L حب الرشاد Cress Brassicaceae Pharm-PCT-2802 Seeds/Boil 100 g of the seeds in 500 ml water for 15 min. About 100 ml of this decoction is to be given orally once a day. Decoction 22 43.14 1.80
Rumex cyprius Murb. حميض Knotweed Polygonaceae Pharm-PCT-2070 Leaves/Fresh leaves juice is given four times daily (about 30 ml each time). Juice 22 43.14 1.80
Zingiber officinale Roscoe زنجبيل Ginger Zingiberaceae Pharm-PCT-2724 Rhizomes/Mix 75 g of the roasted rhizomes with 50 g of honey. One tablespoon of this paste is to be given for patient one hour before sexual intercourse. Paste 21 41.18 1.72
Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus (L.) Domin فجل Cultivated radish Brassicaceae Pharm-PCT-2770 Seeds/Mix equal amounts of the crushed seeds and honey. One tablespoon of this paste is to be given once daily. Paste 20 39.22 1.63
Cucurbita maxima Duchesne قرع Atlantic giant pumpkin Cucurbitaceae Pharm-PCT-2762 Seeds/Boil 100 g of the crushed seeds in 350 ml water and drink this decoction once daily. Decoction 20 39.22 1.63
Portulaca oleracea L. فرفحينه Common purslane Portulacaceae Pharm-PCT-1935 Leaves/Soak about 150 g of the crushed leaves in 500 ml water. This infusion is to be given after each meal. Infusion 19 37.25 1.55
Allium cepa L. بصل Common onion Amaryllidaceae Pharm-PCT-2703 Bulb/Mix 20 ml of onion juice with 5 ml apple vinegar. This mixture is to be given once daily in the early morning time. Juice 18 35.29 1.47
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. سدر Sidr Rhamnaceae Pharm-PCT-2693 Flowers/Boil 1 g of the flowers in 100 ml water and drink this decoction once daily. Decoction 17 33.33 1.39
Urtica urens L. القريص Small nettle Urticaceae Pharm-PCT-2562 Pollen grains/Boil 10 g of the powdered pollen grains in 50 ml water for 10 min. The produce decoction is to be mixed with royal jelly (equal amounts) and given orally before sexual intercourse. Decoction 13 25.49 1.06
Lens culinaris Medik. عدس Lentil Leguminosae Pharm-PCT-2805 Seeds/Boil 100 g of the ground seeds in 200 ml water and 50 ml olive oil for 20 min. 100 ml of this decoction is to be given twice daily Decoction 13 25.49 1.06
Cyperus esculentus L. حب العزيز Nut grass or earth almond Cyperaceae Pharm-PCT-2803 Roots/Soak 100 g of the roots in 800 ml of water for one night. The produced infusion is to be given 3–5 times a day. Infusion 11 21.57 0.90
Hordeum spontaneum K.Koch شعير بري Wild barley Poaceae Pharm-PCT-1211 Seeds/Boil 100 g of the crushed seeds in 100 ml water and drink twice daily after meals. Decoction 10 19.61 0.82
Anacardium occidentale L. كاشو Cashew Anacardiaceae Pharm-PCT-2804 Seeds/Steep 50 g of the grounded seeds in 100 ml water for 6 h. About 20 ml from this infusion is to be given three times a day. Infusion 5 9.80 0.41ii
  1. * This plant should not be used according to Species at Risk of Extinction (https://portals.iucn.org/library/efiles/documents/PP-003-En.pdf)