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Table 3 The results of meta-regression subgroup analyses for primary outcomes

From: The effects of acupuncture on pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristic Subgroup analyses Meta-regression
No. of subjects No. of studies Random-effects RR (95% CI) Heterogeneity Coefficient p-value I2resid Adj R2
I2 P
Clinical pregnancy
Age
 < 33.3 years 1800 8 0.96 (0.82, 1.13) 42.1% 0.097 0.045 0.270 60.38% 0.71%
  ≥ 33.3 years 3821 16 1.27 (1.08, 1.50) 62% <  0.005
Duration of infertility
 < 5. 6 years 2103 8 1.27 (0.95, 1.71) 77.6% <  0.001 0.072 0.523 76.70% −5.06%
  ≥ 5. 6 years 62 1 1.60 (0.59, 4.35) / /
Percentage of primary infertility
 < 50% 518 2 1.11 (0.59, 2.10) 82.7% 0.016 1.252 0.203 71.19% 2.77%
  ≥ 50% 2588 8 1.18 (0.92, 1.52) 73.7% <  0.001
Percentage of repeated IVF cycle
 < 50% 1279 3 0.86 (0.75, 1.00) 0% 0.63 1.59 < 0.001 0% 100%
  ≥ 50% 2099 8 1.60 (1.28, 2.00) 39% 0.12
No. of embryos transferred
 < 1.9 1875 4 0.96 (0.79, 1.16) 46% 0.14 0.219 0.305 65.92% 0.79%
  ≥ 1.9 3186 16 1.24 (1.03, 1.49) 67.3% <  0.001
Type of acupunture invention
 Electroacupuncture 958 7 1.30 (0.96, 1.75) 56.5% 0.032 0.066 0.713 65.29% −6.38%
 Manual acupuncture 5187 21 1.21 (1.04, 1.40) 67.8% <  0.001
No. of acupuncture treatments
 one session 3962 16 1.06 (0.92, 1.21) 61.1% 0.001 0.248 0.002 48.40% 51.90%
  ≥ two sessions 2055 12 1.60 (1.32, 1.92) 24.9% 0.199
Type of control group
 Sham or placebo acupuncture control 3060 11 1.14 (0.94, 1.39) 66.6% 0.001 −0.109 0.466 62.34% −0.25%
 No acupuncture invention control 3084 17 1.28 (1.08 1.52) 60.3% 0.001
Live birth
Age
 < 33.3 years 895 3 0.96 (0.59, 1.58) 77% 0.013 0.026 0.693 68.74% −13.18%
  ≥ 33.3 years 3179 10 1.18 (0.96, 1.45) 63% 0.003
Duration of infertility
 < 5. 6 years 1748 5 1.03 (0.76, 1.40) 71.6% 0.007 0.157 0.712 75.35% −20.26%
  ≥ 5. 6 years / / / / /
Percentage of primary infertility
 < 50% 518 2 1.07 (0.62, 1.83) 69.7% 0.069 0.497 0.658 71.40% −43.04%
  ≥ 50% 2054 4 1.00 (0.74, 1.36) 71.7% 0.014
Percentage of repeated IVF cycle
 < 50% 1005 2 0.81 (0.67, 1.01) 0% 0.673 1.256 0.046 32.78% 87.90%
  ≥ 50% 1688 5 1.42 (1.05, 1.92) 45% 0.12
No. of embryos transferred
 < 1.9 1865 4 0.87 (0.74, 1.02) 0% 0.604 0.386 0.163 62.55% 7.83%
  ≥ 1.9 2397 10 1. 27 (1.00, 1.62) 66.0% 0.002
Type of acupunture invention
 Electroacupuncture 149 1 1.90 (1.05, 3.42) / / 0.534 0.226 61.92% 9.04%
 Manual acupuncture 4323 14 1.11 (0.93, 1.31) 62.0% 0.001
No. of acupuncture treatments
 one session 3080 11 1.13 (0.92, 1.39) 70.4% <  0.001 0.099 0.654 64.01% −7.71%
  ≥ two sessions 1485 5 1.22 (0.93, 1.60) 23.2% 0.266
Type of control group
 Sham or placebo acupuncture control 2480 6 1.01 (0.80, 1.27) 63.8% 0.017 −0.213 0.274 60.40% 7.21%
 No acupuncture invention control 1992 9 1.26 (0.99, 1.60) 58.3% 0.014