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Table 6 Progressive muscle relaxation included studies

From: Mind-body practices for people living with HIV: a systematic scoping review

Project identifier Design Sample size Intervention/duration Outcome/time
[59, 122] India one group with multiple assessment pretest- posttest 6 CBT 20 psychoeducation, activity scheduling, cognitive restructuring, behavioral counseling, progressive muscular relaxation with biofeedback i.s. of 1 h Post-int ↓ symptoms ↓ depression ↓ anxiety
[60] USA one group pretest-posttest design 5 CBT + PMR 12 adherence training, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, progressive muscle relaxation and diaphragmatic breathing i.s. / 12 weeks Post-int ↑ adherence ↓ depression
[61] India one group pretest-posttest pilot design 30 JPMR 10 Jacobson’s progressive muscle relaxation s. /10 weeks Post-int ↓ anxiety ↓ depression
[121] USA phenomenology 24 PMRT + GI 1 progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery i.s or g.s. of 30 min Post-int feeling satisfied, refreshed and peaceful
relief muscle tension and stress
[62] Chine Three group pretest-posttest design 10 CBT 12 cognitive restructuring, behavior change strategies, assertiveness skills, progressive muscle relaxation, home practice g.s. of 2 h /12 weeks Post-int & 6 month ↑ mood ↑ QoL ↑ CD4
10 PSC 12 discussion by leaders, feelings, problems, fears and hopes g.s of 2 h /12 weeks
26 CG usual care
[63, 123,124,125,126,127] USA RCT 14 CBSM 20 cognitive restructuring, assertiveness skills, behavior change strategies, stress information, progressive muscle relaxation, imagery component g.s. of 45 min to 1 h30 + home practice /10 weeks Post-int CBSM et AE ↑ CD4 counts ↓ depression
19 AE 30 aerobic exercise g.s. of 45 min
15 CG usual care
[64] USA RCT 27 CB/PMR 8 cognitive and behavioral strategies, social support, progressive muscle relaxation g.s of 1 h30 + home practice /8 weeks Post-int CB/PMR and SSG ↓ depression ↓ hostility ↓ somatization SSG ↓ anxiety
14 SSG 8 social support group discussion g.s. of 1 h30 /8 weeks
27 CI crisis intervention
[65] Netherlands RCT 8 CBT 15 cognitive restructuring, behavior change strategies, assertiveness skills, stress management techniques and progressive muscle relaxation exercise of Bernstein & Borkovec g.s. of 2 h30 + 1 day 8-h + relaxation home practice /15 weeks Post-int CBT and ET ↓ depression ↑ mood
6 ET 15 group discussion by leaders and progressive muscle relaxation exercise of Bernstein & Borkovec g.s. of 2 h30 + 1 day 8-h + relaxation home practice /15 weeks
6 WL wait-lits
[66] JAPAN RCT 6 PMR + AT progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic training /12 weeks Post-int PMR + AT and PSY: ↓ anxiety ↓ depression ↓ confusion ↓ fatigue
6 PSY supportive psychotherapy/ 12 weeks
7 WL waiting list
[67] USA adolescents 12 Massage 24 massage therapy i.s. of 20 min /12 weeks Post-int Massage ↓ depression ↑ immune function
RCT 12 PMR 24 progressive relaxation routine Jacobson i.s. of 20 min /12 weeks
  1. CBT cognitive-behavioral group psychotherapy, i.s individual sessions, Post-int post intervention, PSC peer/support counseling, CG control group, g.s group sessions, QoL quality of life, CBT + PMR cognitive behavioral therapy and progressive muscle relaxation, JPMR Jacobson’s progressive muscle relaxation, s sessions, PMRT + GI progressive muscle relaxation training and guided imagery, RCT randomized control trial, CBSM cognitive behavioral stress management, AE aerobic exercise, CG control group, CB/PMR cognitive and behavioral strategies, social support, progressive muscle relaxation, SSG support social group, CI crisis intervention, ET experiential group psychotherapy, WL waiting-list control, PMR + AT progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic training, PSY psychotherapy