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Table 5 Meditation included studies

From: Mind-body practices for people living with HIV: a systematic scoping review

Project identifier Design Sample size Intervention/duration Outcome/time
[43] USA one group pretest-posttest design 175 MD 10 meditation i.s. + mantra’s repetition daily /10 weeks Post-int ↓ distress
[44] USA one group pretest-posttest pilot design 5 MBCT 8 mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive therapy g.s and 1 mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive therapy i.s. + daily practice /8 weeks Post-int & 4 month ↓ depressive symptoms ↑ dispositional mindfulness ↑ QoL
[45, 115, 116] USA one group pretest-posttest pilot design + QA adolescents 59 (11HIV+) MBSR 9 body scan, mindfulness meditation, yoga g.s of 2 h + daily practice /8 weeks Post-int Feasible and acceptable ↓ symptoms (hostility and discomfort)
[46] USA one group pretest-posttest pilot design + QA 11 MCPA 5 noticing positive events, capitalizing, gratitude, mindfulness, positive reappraisal, personal strengths, attainable goals, kindness, i.s. + daily home practice /6 weeks Post-int Feasible and acceptable ↑ positive affect ↓ negative affect
[47] USA one group pretest-posttest pilot design + QA 9 MABT 8 massage, interceptive training, mindful body awareness i.s. of 1 h30 + home practice /8 weeks Post-int Feasible and acceptable
[48] Conference abstract UK one group pretest-posttest pilot design + QA 12 CFT 8 attention, emotional regulation, mindfulness practice g.s. of 2 h /8 weeks Post-int Feasible and acceptable
[49] USA untreated control group with pretest and posttest design 24 MBSR 8 body scan, mindfulness meditation, hatha yoga g.s. of 2 h30 + daily home practice /8 weeks Post-int & 5 months ↓ mood disturbance ↓ stress ↑ NK cell number and activity
10 CG usual care
[50] Thailand action research: mixed method 16 PSM 8 mindfulness meditation, emotional reflective techniques s. + daily home practice /8 weeks Post-int ↓ suffering
[51, 117] USA untreated control group with pretest and posttest design + QA 21 3S+ 12 cognitive-behavioral spirituality focused psychotherapy, mindfulness training i.s. + daily mindfulness home practice /12 weeks Post-int ↓ impulsivity ↑ spirituality
17 CG usual care
[52] USA RCT 10 ST 4 support group g.s. of 1 h30 /4 weeks  
10 CBST 4 Benson’s relaxation exercises, cognitive-behavioral stress training g.s. of 1 h30 + twice daily home practice/ 4 weeks
10 WL wait-list
[53] USA RCT 13 MT 1 meditation g.s. of 90 min + daily meditation home practice /4 weeks Post-int & 2 months To MT + MSSG: ↑ QoL
13 MSSG 20 massage i.s. of 30 min /4 weeks
16 MT + MSSG 1 meditation g.s of 90 min + daily meditation home practice + and 20 massage i.s of 30 min /4 weeks
16 Control usual care
[54, 118] USA RCT 46 MT 6 mantra’s repetition g.s. of 90 min and group discussion + daily practice /10 weeks Post-int & 22 weeks ↓ anger ↑ spiritual wellbeing
47 ACG 6 videotapes on HIV-topics g.s. of 90 min and group discussion /10 weeks
[55, 119] USA RCT 33 MBSR 8 body scan, mindfulness meditation, yoga g.s. of 2 h + a day long retreat (6 h) + daily practice /10 weeks Post-int = CD4 counts
15 CG 1 day MBSR information
[56, 120] Iran RCT 120 MBSR 8 body scan, mindfulness meditation, yoga g.s. of 2 h + 1 day of retreat (6 h) + daily practice /8 weeks Post-int & 12 months ↓ physical symptoms
125 ESC 2 HIV education g.s of 2 h
[57] USA RCT 40 MBSR 8 body scan, mindfulness meditation, yoga g.s. of 2 h30 + 1 day of retreat (6 h) + daily practice /8 weeks Post-int ↓ ARV side effects
36 CG wait-list
[58] Canada RCT 78 MBSR 8 body scan, mindfulness meditation, yoga g.s. of 3 h + 1 day of retreat (6 h) + daily practice /8 weeks Post-int & 6 months ↓ avoidance ↑ positive affect ↑ mindfulness
39 CG usual care
[21] USA pilot RCT 11 TM 14 transcendental meditation s. + daily home practice /24 weeks Post-int Feasible and acceptable ↑ HRQoL
11 HE 14 healthy eating education s.
  1. MD meditation, i.s. individual sessions, Post-int post intervention, MBCT mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, g.s group sessions, QoL quality of life, QA qualitative approach, MBSR mindfulness-based stress reduction program, RCT randomized controlled trial, QE qualitative evaluation, MCPA multiple-component positive affect, MABT mindful awareness in body-oriented therapy, CFT compassion-focused therapy, 3-S+ spiritual self-schema therapy, PSM palliative-suffering model, TM transcendental meditation, HE healthy eating education, HRQoL health related quality of life, ST support training, SIT stress inoculation training, WL wait list, MT mantra, MSSG massage, MT + MSSG mantra + massage, ACG attention control group, CG control group, ESC education and support condition