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Table 3 Mortality associated with the TCM users, by duration of TCM use and TCM use status

From: Traditional Chinese medicine use is associated with lower end-stage renal disease and mortality rates among patients with diabetic nephropathy: a population-based cohort study

  Death PY Ia Before matched After matched
aHR$ (95% CI) Sig. aHR$ (95% CI) Sig.
Duration of TCM use (days)
 TCM nonuser 14,588 170,815.5 85.4 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
  ≤ 60 6144 114,886.8 53.5 0.55 (0.54–0.57) *** 0.56 (0.54–0.57) ***
 61–120 1236 27,672.5 44.7 0.47 (0.44–0.49) *** 0.47 (0.44–0.50) ***
 121–180 566 13,663.0 41.4 0.40 (0.37–0.43) *** 0.43 (0.39–0.46) ***
 181–240 311 8969.5 34.7 0.36 (0.33–0.40) *** 0.36 (0.32–0.40) ***
 241– 916 32,473.4 28.2 0.29 (0.27–0.30) *** 0.29 (0.28–0.31) ***
TCM use status
 Never user 10,699 127,149.0 84.1 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Former user 3889 43,666.6 89.1 1.01 (0.98–1.05)   1.02 (0.98–1.06)  
 Current user 5530 113,624.6 48.7 0.49 (0.47–0.50) *** 0.49 (0.48–0.51) ***
 New user 3643 84,040.59 43.3 0.47 (0.45–0.48) *** 0.47 (0.46–0.49) ***
  1. *Significance: *p-value <.05; **p-value <.01; ***p-value <.001
  2. aIncidence is presented as 1000 person-year (PY)
  3. $Age, gender, geolocation, insured level, comorbidities, medications, previous TCM experience, were adjusted in the Cox regression model to evaluate the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality