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Table 2 Incidence rates and risks of ESRD and mortality among TCM users and TCM nonusers

From: Traditional Chinese medicine use is associated with lower end-stage renal disease and mortality rates among patients with diabetic nephropathy: a population-based cohort study

  Overall TCM user TCM nonuser  
Case PY Ia Case PY Ia Case PY Ia aHR/aCSHRb (95% CI)
Before matching
 All-cause mortality 32,201 703,192.6 47.4 14,048 458,457 30.6 18,153 244,735.7 74.1 0.48 (0.47–0.49)*
ESRD 13,538 669,671.5 20.2 7363 439,654.1 16.7 6175 230,017.3 26.8 0.74 (0.72–0.77)*
After matching
 All-cause mortality 23,761 437,362.7 54.3 9173 232,106.2 39.5 14,588 205,256.5 71.1 0.48 (0.47–0.50)*
 ESRD 9407 414,628.6 22.7 4252 221,755.2 19.2 5155 192,873.3 26.7 0.81 (0.78–0.84)*
  1. Abbreviations: aCSHR adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio, aHR adjusted hazard ratio, ESRD end-stage renal disease, TCM traditional Chinese medicine;
  2. *p-value <.001
  3. aIncidence is presented as 1000 person-year (PY)
  4. bAge, gender, geolocation, insurance level, comorbidities, medications, and previous TCM experience, were adjusted in the Cox regression model to evaluate the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for all-cause mortality. Age, gender, geolocation, insured level, comorbidities, medications, previous experience with TCM were fitted in the competing-risk regression to evaluate the adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio (aCSHR) for ESRD