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Table 1 Comparable demographic features among TCM users and non-TCM users after 1:1 propensity score matching

From: Traditional Chinese medicine use is associated with lower end-stage renal disease and mortality rates among patients with diabetic nephropathy: a population-based cohort study

  TCM users (n = 34,441) TCM nonusers (n = 34,441) Standardized mean difference
Gender      0.068
 Female 14,455 (42.0%) 15,623 (45.4%)  
 Male 19,986 (58.0%) 18,818 (54.6%)  
Age (years)      −0.017
 -20 24 (0.1%) 49 (0.1%)  
 21–40 716 (2.1%) 1072 (3.1%)  
 41–60 8429 (24.5%) 10,140 (29.4%)  
 61- 25,272 (73.4%) 23,180 (67.3%)  
Insured level (NTD/month)      −0.068
 0–20,000 30,012 (87.1%) 28,832 (83.7%)  
 20,001–40,000 2330 (6.8%) 3343 (9.7%)  
 40,001– 2099 (6.1%) 2266 (6.6%)  
Geolocation      0.030
 1 (more urban) 8495 (24.7%) 8648 (25.1%)  
 2 9400 (27.3%) 9630 (28.0%)  
 3 5173 (15.0%) 5311 (15.4%)  
 4 6273 (18.2%) 6058 (17.6%)  
 5 1063 (3.1%) 1020 (3.0%)  
 6 2157 (6.3%) 2028 (5.9%)  
 7 (more rural) 1880 (5.5%) 1746 (5.1%)  
Previous TCM users 868 (2.5%) 2962 (8.6%) −0.181
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 22,578 (65.6%) 21,575 (62.6%) 0.060
 Hyperlipidemia 10,659 (30.9%) 10,979 (31.9%) −0.020
 Heart failure 2147 (6.2%) 2030 (5.9%) 0.015
 IHD 7123 (20.7%) 6867 (19.9%) 0.019
 CVD 3143 (9.1%) 3016 (8.8%) 0.013
 Hyperuricemia 4242 (12.3%) 4060 (11.8%) 0.017
 COPD 4207 (12.2%) 4180 (12.1%) 0.002
 CCI 4.2 (1.9) 4.0 (2.0) 0.088
 Modified DCSI score 1.5 (1.3) 1.4 (1.3) 0.035
Confounding drugs
 Diabetic drugs
  Insulin analogs 3716 (10.8%) 3534 (10.3%) 0.018
  Biguanides 19,275 (56.0%) 19,019 (55.2%) 0.015
  SU 22,281 (64.7%) 21,990 (63.8%) 0.018
  Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors 3597 (10.4%) 3577 (10.4%) 0.002
  TZD 4560 (13.2%) 4597 (13.3%) −0.003
  Others 2612 (7.6%) 2523 (7.3%) 0.010
 Lipid-lowering agent      
  Statin 8342 (23.3%) 8291 (23.2%) 0.005
  Fibrate 4003 (11.2%) 4000 (11.2%) 0.000
  Others 104 (0.3%) 90 (0.3%) 0.008
 Anti-hypertensives
  ACEi 9369 (27.2%) 8976 (26.1%) 0.026
  ARB 9511 (27.6%) 9029 (26.2%) 0.032
  α-blocker 2653 (7.7%) 2452 (7.1%) 0.023
  β-blocker 10,484 (30.4%) 10,181 (29.6%) 0.019
  CCB 16,008 (46.5%) 15,137 (44.0%) 0.051
  Diuretics 10,402 (30.2%) 9816 (28.5%) 0.038
  Vasodilator 4640 (13.5%) 4464 (13.0%) 0.015
  Central-acting agent 2653 (7.7%) 2452 (7.1%) 0.027
 Analgesics
  NSAID 10,429 (30.3%) 10,839 (31.5%) −0.025
  COX-2 inhibitors 1785 (5.2%) 1685 (4.9%) 0.014
  Acetaminophen 8672 (25.2%) 9103 (26.4%) −0.028
Aspirin 11,949 (34.7%) 11,574 (33.6%) 0.023
  1. Abbreviations: ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, CCB calcium channel blocker, CCI Charlson’s comorbidity index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COX-2 cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, DCSI Diabetes Complications Severity Index, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NTD new Taiwan dollar, SU Sulfonylureas, TCM traditional Chinese medicine, TZD Thiazolidinediones