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Table 1 Antinociceptive effects of PECN assessed using the hot plate test in mice

From: Antinociceptive activity of petroleum ether fraction obtained from methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans leaves involves the activation of opioid receptors and NO-mediated/cGMP-independent pathway

Group Dose (mg/kg) Latency of discomfort(s) at respective time interval (min)
0 min 60 min 90 min 120 min 150 min 180 min 210 min
10% DMSO   6.29 ± 0.15 6.88 ± 0.29 6.89 ± 0.31 6.28 ± 0.12 6.76 ± 0.43 6.67 ± 0.33 6.46 ± 0.12
PECN 100 6.41 ± 0.40 8.95 ± 0.87*a 8.23 ± 0.35*a 8.38 ± 0.48*a 8.11 ± 0.66*a 8.41 ± 0.58*a 7.57 ± 0.63
250 5.70 ± 0.16 9.71 ± 0.84#b 8.29 ± 0.40#b 8.92 ± 0.50#ba 8.17 ± 0.33*b 7.77 ± 0.31*a 7.89 ± 0.28*a
500 6.37 ± 0.18 10.28 ± 0.72§c 9.52 ± 0.47#b 8.96 ± 0.23#a 9.47 ± 0.31#b 9.55 ± 0.40#b 9.06 ± 0.51#b
MOR 5 6.02 ± 0.15 17.00 ± 0.90§c 18.42 ± 0.47§c 17.25 ± 0.93§c 13.47 ± 1.31§c 11.87 ± 1.04§c 11.15 ± 0.71§c
  1. Data expressed are the mean ± SEM of reaction time (sec) of six mice
  2. Statistical analysis was performed using two–way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test
  3. *p < 0.05, #p < 0.01, §p < 0.001, compared to control group within the respective column
  4. ap < 0.05, bp < 0.01, cp < 0.001, compared to control group within the respective row
  5. DMSO Dimetyl sulfoxide, PECN Petroleum ether extract of C. nutans, MOR morphine
  6. Mice were treated (p.o) with vehicle (10 mL/kg), PECN (100, 250, 500 mg/kg), or MOR (5 mg/kg) for 60 mins prior to subjection to the test