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Fig. 2 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 2

From: Antinociceptive activity of petroleum ether fraction obtained from methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans leaves involves the activation of opioid receptors and NO-mediated/cGMP-independent pathway

Fig. 2

Antinocicpetive effect of PECN assessed using the formalin–induced paw licking in mice (a) Early phase; (b) late phase. Animals were treated with vehicle (10 mL/kg, po), ASA (100 mg/kg, po), PECN (100, 250, 500 mg/kg, po), or MOR (5 mg/kg, po) 60 min before intraplantar administration of formalin (5% in normal saline; 20 μL) into the right hind paw. Each column represents the mean ± SEM of six mice. Statistical analyses were performed using one–way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test. ***p < 0.001 compared to control group. Values in parentheses denote percentage of inhibition

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