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Table 2 Cox model with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of fracture associated with TCM and covariates among osteoporosis patients

From: Decreased fracture incidence with traditional Chinese medicine therapy in patients with osteoporosis: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Variable Fracture no. (n = 323) Crude* Adjusted
HR (95%CI) p-value HR (95%CI) p-value
TCM use
 No 193 1.00 reference   1.00 reference  
 Yes 130 0.50 (0.4–0.63) <.0001 0.47 (0.37–0.59) <.0001
Gender
 Female 266 1.00 reference   1.00 reference  
 Male 57 0.78 (0.59–1.04) 0.0939 0.58 (0.43–0.79) 0.0004
Age group, year
 < 65 107 1.00 reference   1.00 reference  
 ≥ 65 216 2.28 (1.81–2.87) <.0001 2.62 (2.03–3.39) <.0001
Urbanization level
 1 (highest) 73 1.00 reference   1.00 reference  
 2 94 1.28 (0.94–1.73) 0.1173 1.24 (0.91–1.69) 0.1665
 3 52 1.46 (1.02–2.08) 0.0372 1.43 (0.99–2.05) 0.0534
 4 (lowest) 104 1.54 (1.14–2.07) 0.0049 1.31 (0.97–1.77) 0.0824
Baseline comorbidity
 Alcohol-related disease (Yes vs. No) 4 5.20 (1.94–13.96) 0.0011 4.38 (1.6–12.02) 0.0041
 Cancer (Yes vs. No) 9 0.83 (0.43–1.61) 0.5758 0.70 (0.36–1.37) 0.2979
 Cardiovascular disease (Yes vs. No) 139 1.38 (1.1–1.71) 0.0046 1.07 (0.83–1.38) 0.5856
 Chronic kidney disease (Yes vs. No) 9 1.22 (0.63–2.36) 0.5608 1.05 (0.53–2.07) 0.8909
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary (Yes vs. No)disease 92 1.25 (0.98–1.59) 0.0759 1.20 (0.93–1.54) 0.1688
 Diabetes mellitus (Yes vs. No) 87 1.20 (0.94–1.54) 0.1442 1.11 (0.85–1.44) 0.4518
 Dementia (Yes vs. No) 6 1.62 (0.72–3.64) 0.2432 1.00 (0.43–2.29) 0.9909
 Depression (Yes vs. No) 25 1.41 (0.94–2.12) 0.0972 1.62 (1.05–2.5) 0.0285
 Hyperlipidemia (Yes vs. No) 62 0.79 (0.6–1.04) 0.0922 0.73 (0.54–0.98) 0.0352
 Hypertension (Yes vs. No) 186 1.28 (1.03–1.59) 0.0292 0.92 (0.72–1.19) 0.5362
 Parkinson’s disease (Yes vs. No) 5 1.25 (0.52–3.02) 0.6248 0.92 (0.37–2.27) 0.8498
  1. Crude HR* represented relative hazard ratio; Adjusted HR represented adjusted hazard ratio: mutually adjusted for TCM use, age, gender, urbanization level and baseline comorbidity in Cox proportional hazard regression