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Table 1 Characteristics of osteoporosis patients according to use of traditional Chinese medicine

From: Decreased fracture incidence with traditional Chinese medicine therapy in patients with osteoporosis: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Variable TCM  
No (N = 804) Yes (N = 804)   p-value
n % n %  
Gender 0.99*
 Female 615 76.49 615 76.49  
 Male 189 23.51 189 23.51  
Age group, year 0.99*
 < 65 386 48.01 386 48.01  
 ≥ 65 418 51.99 418 51.99  
Mean (SD) 64.57 (11.08) 64.48 (11.08) 0.8813a
Urbanization level 0.0104*
 1 (highest) 207 25.75 240 29.85  
 2 238 29.6 226 28.11  
 3 106 13.18 134 16.67  
 4 (lowest) 253 31.47 204 25.37  
Baseline comorbidity
 Alcohol-related disease 4 0.5 1 0.12 0.3742b
 Cancer 45 5.6 22 2.74 0.0041*
 Cardiovascular disease 307 38.18 305 37.94 0.9182*
 Chronic kidney disease 25 3.11 25 3.11 0.99*
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 188 23.38 241 29.98 0.0028*
 Diabetes mellitus 212 26.37 185 23.01 0.1184*
 Dementia 19 2.36 12 1.49 0.2043*
 Depression 44 5.47 54 6.72 0.2972*
 Hyperlipidemia 168 20.9 218 27.11 0.0035*
 Hypertension 447 55.6 416 51.74 0.1211*
 Parkinson’s disease 8 1 11 1.37 0.4887*
Interval between diagnosis and initial TCM use, mean (days)    611   
Follow-up time, mean (median; years) 3.75 (2.86) 5.38 (5.18)  
  1. *Chi-Square Test, a t-test, bFisher’s exact test
  2. : The urbanization level was categorized into four levels based on the population density of the residential area, with level 1 as the most urbanized and level 4 as the least urbanized
  3. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) included Chinese herbal remedies, acupuncture, and manipulative