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Table 3 Cytotoxic effect (IC50 and LC50) and the selectivity index (SI) of different extracts from Croton species and reference drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride) on cancerous cell lines versus a non-cancerous cell line

From: Croton gratissimus leaf extracts inhibit cancer cell growth by inducing caspase 3/7 activation with additional anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities

Plant Name Extracts LC50 (μg/mL) IC50 (μg/mL) and Selectivity index = LC50/IC50
Vero A549 SI Caco-2 SI HeLa SI MCF-7 SI
Croton gratissimus CGA 462.88 ± 7.71a 97.46 ± 2.20a 4.75 74.05 ± 5.79a 6.25 78.21 ± 0.17a 5.91 83.74 ± 2.06a 5.52
CGE 152.30 ± 3.68b 79.60 ± 2.32b 1.91 48.46 ± 3.47b 3.14 73.78 ± 4.12a 2.06 39.75 ± 2.49b 3.83
CGW 533.33 ± 13.21a > 200 <2.66 > 200 <2.66 > 200 <2.66 > 200 <2.66
Croton pseudopulchellus CPA 48.19 ± 5.27c 36.54 ± 1.81c 1.31 112.74 ± 4.26c 0.42 128.69 ± 21.97b 0.37 24.65 ± 2.37c 1.95
CPE 7.86 ± 1.47d 23.78 ± 1.41d 0.33 36.24 ± 2.34d 0.21 63.79 ± 1.02c 0.12 13.54 ± 1.18d 0.58
CPW > 1000 > 200 ND > 200 ND > 200 ND > 200 ND
Croton sylvaticus CSA 27.92 ± 0.62e 32.78 ± 2.55c 0.85 150.63 ± 8.79e 0.18 169.09 ± 13.05b 0.16 13.13 ± 2.76d 2.12
CSE 8.23 ± 0.44d 1.75 ± 0.62e 4.70 103.73 ± 1.47c 0.08 106.52 ± 4.50b 0.07 6.02 ± 1.60e 1.36
CSW > 1000 > 200 ND > 200 ND > 200 ND 45.62 ± 5.69b >21.92
Doxorubicin (μM) 1.90 ± 0.15f 1.30 ± 0.06f 1.46 1.08 ± 0.18f 1.75 2.17 ± 0.08d 0.87 1.11 ± 0.03f 1.71
  1. Data are presented as means of triplicate measurements ± standard error; superscript letters a-f represent statistical difference between data obtained, and for each cell line within a column of the above table, data with different letters mean significantly different at p < 0.05 while data with same letters are statistically not different. ND = Not Determined. IC50: concentration required to inhibit the cell growth by 50% compared to untreated controls. SI is the selectivity index which is determined for each extract by dividing the LC50 on the non-cancerous cell by the IC50 on each cancer cell in the same units. CGA, CGE and CGW represent respectively acetone, ethanol and water extracts of Croton gratissimus. CPA, CPE and CPW represent respectively acetone, ethanol and water extracts of Croton pseudopulchellus. CSA, CSE and CSW represent respectively acetone, ethanol and water extracts of Croton sylvaticus