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Table 2 Proportions and odds of CAM use among adults with and without comorbidities

From: Complementary and alternative medicine use among persons with multiple chronic conditions: results from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey

Independent Variables Overall CAM Use CAM Use in Patients with 2 or More Chronic Conditions Adjusted Odds of CAM Use
Patients with 1 Chronic Condition Patients with 2 or More Chronic Conditions
  n(%) χ2, p-value n(%) χ2, p-value aOR [95% CI] p-value aOR [95% CI] p-value
Age Group   6.69, p < 0.001   14.04, p = 0.003     
  < 35 (ref) 349(28.3)   156(26.9)   1.00 1.00
 35–49 887(29.9)   473(27.7)   1.12[0.89,1.39] 0.331 1.04[0.83,1.30] 0.729
 50–64 1740(31.6)   1108(31.0)   1.07[0.86,1.32] 0.548 1.21[0.98,1.49] 0.083
  > 64 1607(27.6)   1042(27.4)   0.94[0.75,1.18] 0.529 1.10[0.88,1.37] 0.417
Sex   3.28, p = 0.071   2.29, p = 0.130     
 Male (ref) 1999(28.7)   1219(28.0)   1.00 1.00
 Female 2584(30.2)   1560(29.4)   1.25[1.11,1.42] < 0.001 1.29[1.17,1.42] < 0.001
Race and Ethnicity   79.11, p < 0.001   161.97, p < 0.001     
 Non-Hispanic White (ref) 3857(32.9)   2307(32.0)   1.00 1.00
 Non-Hispanic Black/African American 460(16.4)   320(17.2)   0.46[0.37,0.56] < 0.001 0.52[0.45,0.60] < 0.001
 Alaska Natives/American Indians 39(25.2)   24(22.4)   0.98[0.52,1.85] 0.949 0.64[0.40,1.02] 0.058
 Non-Hispanic Other 227(25.6)   128(25.8)   0.61[0.47,0.78] < 0.001 0.75[0.60,0.94] 0.012
Education Level   111.49, p < 0.001   132.62, p < 0.001     
 Less than High School (ref) 533(18.8)   369(19.1)   1.00 1.00
 High School Graduate/Some College 2696(30.0)   1694(29.6)   1.80[1.48,2.19] < 0.001 1.53[1.34,1.74] < 0.001
 College/Professional Graduate 1354(36.5)   716(35.3)   2.12[1.70,2.65] < 0.001 1.78[1.51,2.09] < 0.001
Marital Status   12.49, p < 0.001   16.36, p < 0.001     
 Married (ref) 2550(31.2)   1533(30.2)   1.00 1.00
 Widowed/Divorced 1465(28.3)   919(28.0)   1.04[0.90,1.21] 0.589 1.02[0.92,1.15] 0.666
 Single/Never Married 568(25.9)   327(24.8)   0.96[0.79,1.16] 0.681 0.92[0.79,1.07] 0.291
Family Income   38.48, p < 0.001   97.68, p < 0.001     
  < $20,000 (ref) 1652(24.7)   1097(24.6)   1.00 1.00
 $20,000–$34,999 613(29.0)   367(27.3)   1.12[0.93,1.36] 0.245 0.98[0.85,1.14] 0.838
 $35,000–$49,999 801(34.3)   483(34.3)   1.21[1.00,1.46] 0.044 1.30[1.12,1.50] < 0.001
 $50,000–$74,999 1255(36.2)   675(35.1)   1.21[1.01,1.46] 0.040 1.25[1.08,1.44] 0.003
 $75,000+ 262(28.6)   157(29.1)   1.01[0.78,1.32] 0.931 1.14[0.93,1.41] 0.208
Health Insurance Coverage   4.31, p = 0.039   0.05, p = 0.816     
 Yes 4107(29.8)   2489(28.8)   1.05[0.85,1.29] 0.674 0.84[0.71,0.99] 0.041
 No (ref) 476(27.2)   290(28.4)   1.00 1.00
Regular Source of Care   9.36, p = 0.002   7.02, p = 0.008     
 Yes 4256(29.9)   2624(29.0)   1.06[0.86,1.31] 0.596 1.09[0.88,1.35] 0.424
 No (ref) 327(25.3)   155(24.1)   1.00 1.00
Geographic Region   33.08, p < 0.001   157.90, p < 0.001     
 Northeast (ref) 702(27.3)   389(25.0)   1.00 1.00
 Midwest 1140(35.6)   723(35.8)   1.21[1.00,1.46] 0.046 1.64[1.41,1.90] < 0.001
 South 1441(24.1)   895(23.1)   0.91[0.76,1.08] 0.268 1.03[0.89,1.19] 0.681
 West 1300(34.4)   772(34.6)   1.21[1.01,1.45] 0.037 1.61[1.38,1.87] < 0.001
Hypercholesterolemia   45.22, p < 0.001   13.64, p < 0.001  
 Yes 2995(31.5)   2105(29.7)  
 No 1588(26.4)   674(25.9)  
Hypertension   27.19, p < 0.001   0.33, p = 0.566
 Yes 3210(28.3)   2357(28.6)  
 No 1373(32.7)   422(29.4)  
Diabetes   41.12, p < 0.001   25.62, p < 0.001
 Yes 877(25.0)   814(25.4)  
 No 3706(30.8)   1965(30.4)  
Body Mass Index   12.01, p < 0.001   22.60, p < 0.001
  < 18.5 (Underweight) 158(1.0)   67(19.8)  
 18.5–24.9 (Normal) 1092(7.0)   338(25.6)  
 25.0–29.9 (Overweight) 1669(10.7)   712(29.6)  
 30.0+ (Obese) 1664(10.8)   1662(29.6)  
  1. Note: All frequencies are unweighted; all percentages are weighted