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Table 3 Association between alcohol and CAM for female participants

From: Gender specific association between the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and alcohol consumption and injuries caused by drinking in the sixth Tromsø study

  Alternative practitionera Herbal meedicineb Self-treatmentc
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Alcohol Frequency of use
 Never 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Monthly or more infrequently 0.94 (0.75–1.17) 0.570 0.88 (0.68–1.14) 0.336 1.13 (0.94–1.37) 0.198 1.20 (0.96–1.48) 0.105 2.02 (1.32–3.09) 0.001 1.46 (0.92–2.30) 0.104
 2–4 times a month 1.17 (0.94–1.45) 0.161 1.08 (0.84–1.39) 0.555 1.36 (1.14–1.64) 0.001 1.43 (1.15–1.78) 0.001 2.86 (1.89–4.31) 0.000 1.71 (1.09–2.66) 0.019
 2–3 times a week 1.04 (0.80–1.34) 0.779 1.02 (0.76–1.37) 0.885 1.30 (1.05–1.61) 0.015 1.37 (1.08–1.75) 0.010 3.69 (2.39–5.69) 0.000 2.07 (1.29–3.31) 0.002
 More that 3 times a week 1.09 (0.75–1.58) 0.649 1.13 (0.75–1.71) 0.550 1.60 (1.91–2.16) 0.002 1.76 (1.27–2.44) 0.001 4.16 (2.46–7.03) 0.000 2.62 (1.48–4.61) 0.001
Units of alcohol consumed when drinking
 1–2 units 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 3–4 units 1.13 (0.95–1.35) 0.153 1.03 (0.85–1.24) 0.763 1.01 (0.87–1.16) 0.918 1.03 (0.89–1.21) 0.668 1.12 (0.89–1.40) 0.335 0.90 (0.71–1.15) 0.395
 5 or more units 1.03 (0.72–1.48) 0.862 0.79 (0.54–1.17) 0.247 0.76 (0.55–1.05) 0.092 0.76 (0.54–1.07) 0.114 1.05 (0.65–1.71) 0.837 0.77 (0.46–1.28) 0.316
Injuries because of drinking
 Never 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.94 (1.35–2.79) 0.000 1.69 (1.16–2.47) 0.006 1.45 (1.06–2.00) 0.022 1.38 (0.98–1.93) 0.059 2.85 (1.91–4.24) 0.000 1.95 (1.28–2.96) 0.002
  1. a Visited an alternative medical practitioner within the previous year. b Used herbal or “natural” medicine within the previous year. c Used meditation, yoga, qi gong or tai-chi as self-treatment within the previous year. Adjusted p-value, OR and CI were adjusted for health status (cat.), household income (cat.), age (count) and level of education (cat). Cat.: categorical; Cont.: continuous