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Table 6 Effect of tocotrienol supplementation on macro- and micro-nutrient intake in postmenopausal osteopenic women

From: A 12-week evaluation of annatto tocotrienol supplementation for postmenopausal women: safety, quality of life, body composition, physical activity, and nutrient intake

Variable Week 0 Week 12 Overall P Value
Placeboa Low TT High TT Placebo Low TT High TT  
Total calories (kcal) 1685.9 (624.72) 2399.8 (1549.82) 1928.2 (810.37) 1610.4 (550.15) 2128.6 (1382.71) 2211.9 (1816.89) 0.111
Carbohydrates (g) 199.8 (86.99) 266.5 (169.59) 232.5 (106.84) 190.2 (73.18) 232.9 (159.45) 264.0 (241.36) 0.233
Total sugars (g) 90.7 (52.64) 123.6 (77.6) 112.8 (60.48) 87.2 (42.48) 103.3 (68.72) 124.1 (126.57) 0.192
Total fiber (g) 21.7 (8.99) 27.8(19.94) 24.1 (10.73) 20.7 (8.67) 26.7 (19.18) 29.4 (26.49) 0.252
Total fat (g) 65.9 (26.97) 104.4 (71.73) 72.7 (33.8) 63.3 (24.00) 95.4 (61.70) 84.5 (62.57) 0.215
Cholesterol (mg) 204.5 (99.95) 323.7 (245.7) 297.2 (190.79) 212.5 (95.05) 268.0 (196.27) 309.8 (256.2) 0.278
Saturated fat (g) 20.6 (10.61) 33.5 (25.52) 25.1 (15.02) 19.7 (8.13) 28.0 (18.52) 26.6 (21.59) 0.213
Monounsaturated (g) 25.0 (10.02) 40.2(27.25) 25.90 (11.60) 24.1 (9.04) 38.7 (25.83) 31.8 (21.11) 0.201
Polyunsaturated (g) 14.2 (6.27) 20.9 (14.32) 14.6 (6.66) 13.7 (7.14) 20.2 (14.56) 18.3 (15.28) 0.298
Protein (g) 72.4 (27.83) 101.2 (71.44) 90.0(41.12) 70.5 (23.93) 91.2(74.78) 105.0(97.63) 0.293
Calcium (mg) 1164.1 (587.92) 1277.4 (730.38) 1318.2(792.1) 1184.6 (517.16) 1044.3 (574.77) 1219.5 (1044.16) 0.373
Potassium (mg) 2908.1 (1107.18) 3892.8 (2582.54) 3343.0(1560.48) 2847.1 (972.19) 3463.7 (2495.8) 3970.2 (3551.94) 0.202
Phosphorus (mg) 1211.7 (486.11) 1638.9 (1057.27) 1480.8(655.18) 1217.3 (408.83) 1430.9 (1027.86) 1655.4 (1476.94) 0.309
Sodium (mg) 1849.3 (826.99) 2656 (1860.41) 2337.2(963.73) 1847.2 (719.41) 2355.3 (1609.08) 2609.3 (2047.47) 0.257
Magnesium (mg) 382.1 (183.15) 490.1 (331.28) 413.0(223.5) 363.5 (148.08) 405.1 (273.53) 446.2 (437.75) 0.396
Iron (mg) 12.2 (4.64) 17.2 (11.74) 16.0 (9.24) 12.4 (7.81) 15.5 (12.2) 18.2 (14.12) 0.435
α-Carotene (μg) 703.2 (548.58) 1143.1 (2215.95) 619.2 (475.97) 713.0 (585.51) 1180.0 (2996.32) 1402.5 (2523.89) 0.133
β-Carotene (μg) 5288.3 (3804.98) 6993.7 (9886.87) 5531.6 (3336.1) 5379.9 (4162.6) 7229.7 (11,253.44) 7927.5 (10,896.58) 0.439
Vitamin D (IU) 437.0 (400.57) 443.7 (296.05) 516.0 (403.89) 412.5 (339.19) 286.4 (256.39) 382.7 (371.33) 0.333
Vitamin E (mg) 16.9 (35.42) 29.7 (70.48) 17.2 (19.49) 18.5 (34.65) 61.2 (80.46) 26.3 (46.57) 0.365
Vitamin K1 (μg) 174.1 (132.15) 217.9 (173.9) 228.8 (133.54) 178.5 (130.91) 214.1 (179.3) 253.0 (231.18) 0.805
Vitamin C (mg) 266.4 (351.41) 224.5 (266.92) 163.4 (211.03) 300.2 (410.03) 159.3 (226.95) 209.8 (242.44) 0.058
Thiamine (mg) 3.6 (9.69) 6.5 (14.13) 5.4 (13.11) 5.5 (13.72) 3.5 (10.24) 5.3 (12.86) 0.762
Riboflavin (mg) 4.2 (9.75) 7.2 (14.11) 6.2 (13.35) 6.1 (13.56) 4.0 (10.37) 6.2 (13.17) 0.744
Pyridoxine (mg) 8.1 (29.29) 7.1 (14.19) 13.0 (34.1) 8.0 (16.3) 17.9 (39.61) 11.5 (38.01) 0.255
Vitamin B12 (μg) 46.9 (146.1) 51.5 (137.43) 46.9 (127.98) 70.3 (168.15) 66.1 (168.15) 11.8 (14.73) 0.138
Folic acid (μg) 153.7 (130.66) 277.0 (263.85) 234.0 (301.46) 215.1 (235.85) 161.1 (203.88) 205.6 (191.8) 0.121
Niacin (mg) 25.6 (11.66) 49.7 (57.12) 34.2 (22.63) 47.2 (78.42) 30.3 (25.59) 37.0 (32.63) 0.186
  1. aValues are mean(SD)