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Table 1 Baseline demographic characteristics of study population

From: A 12-week evaluation of annatto tocotrienol supplementation for postmenopausal women: safety, quality of life, body composition, physical activity, and nutrient intake

Variables Placebo Low TT High TT P value
Number 28 29 30  
Age [y] 59.4±6.3 58.5±6.7 61.2±7.2 0.431
Weight [kg] 74.3±17.9 76.3±14.8 74.3±16.8 0.680
Height [cm] 160.0±6.2 163.7±6.5 155.6±27.1 0.107
Body mass index [kg/m2] 28.9±6.5 28.5±5.0 28.8±5.8 0.986
Bone mineral density [T-score]
 Femoral Neck −1.66±0.65 −1.52±0.82 −1.34±1.17 0.795
 Trochanter −1.06±0.95 −1.04±0.79 −0.85±1.30 0.945
 Total spine 0.79±0.89 −0.87±0.85 −0.53±1.10 0.654
 L1-L4 −0.67±0.99 −0.72±1.17 0.59±1.23 0.919
Serum 25 (OH)D [ng/mL] 35.79±9.13 35.45±9.70 34.27±9.97 0.634
Serum TSH [mIU/L] 2.25±1.01 2.45±1.46 2.52±1.71 0.944
Serum HbA1c [%] 5.66±0.35 5.81±0.34 5.56±0.36 0.011
Medical history [n (%)]
 Broken bone as adult 6 (21.43) 7 (24.14) 8 (26.67) 0.897
 Osteoarthritis 3 (12.00) 5 (20.83) 3 (11.54) 0.584
 Diabetes 2 (7.14) 2 (6.90) 0 (0.00) 0.331
 Asthma 4 (14.29) 3 (10.34) 2 (6.67) 0.636
 Use of HRT in the past 2 yr 10 (35.71) 8 (27.59) 6 (20.00) 0.409
 Steroid or glucocorticoid use 5 (17.86) 4 (13.79) 3 (10.00) 0.687
 Prescribed osteoporosis drugs 1 (3.57) 4 (13.79) 7 (23.33) 0.093
  1. All data are mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise specified
  2. HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, High TT tocotrienol supplementation at 860 mg daily (70% purity); HRT hormone replacement treatment, Low TT tocotrienol supplementation at 430 mg daily (70% purity), TSH thyroid stimulating hormone, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxy-vitamin D