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Fig. 4 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 4

From: The ameliorative effect of bloodletting puncture at hand twelve Jing-well points on cerebral edema induced by permanent middle cerebral ischemia via protecting the tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier

Fig. 4

Effect of bloodletting puncture at HTWP on ultrastructure of the BBB in the ipsilateral cortex at 48 h following pMCAO (n = 3 per group). a, d, g Sham-operated group. Normal basement membrane and tight junctions were observed. b, e, h pMCAO group. The basement membranes were disrupted, tight junctions were unclear, and astrocytes were degenerated. c, f, i Bloodletting group. Continuous tight junctions and basement membrane were observed. EC, endothelial cell; L, capillary lumen. BM, basement membrane; P, pericyte; *, astrocyte end-feet; TJ, tight junctions; Ast, astrocyte; N, neuron; Nu, nucleus. Scale bar = 1 μm in (a, d, g, i). Scale bar = 2 μm in (b, c, e, f, h)

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