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Table 1 General Characteristics of the Study Participants (n = 3529)

From: Sasang constitutional types for the risk prediction of metabolic syndrome: a 14-year longitudinal prospective cohort study

  TE SE SY p-value
n = 1589 (45.03%) n = 474 (13.43%) n = 1466 (41.54%)
Age, years 49.83 ± 8.08 a 48.62 ± 7.57 b 49.76 ± 7.93 a 0.011
Women, n (%) 739 (46.51) 247 (52.11) 774 (52.80) 0.001
Body Mass Index, kg/m2 25.63 ± 2.47 a 21.32 ± 1.98 b 23.02 ± 2.17 c <0.001
Waist circumference, cm 83.85 ± 7.10 a 73.87 ± 6.39 b 77.52 ± 6.89 c <0.001
Education, years
  ≤ 9 1288 (81.06) 390 (82.28) 1259 (85.88) 0.002
  > 9 301 (18.94) 84 (17.72) 207 (14.12)
Income, won
  < 2 × 106 855 (53.81) 270 (56.96) 863 (58.87) 0.002
 2 ~ 4 × 106 552 (34.74) 173 (36.50) 475 (32.40)
  > 4 × 106 182 (11.45) 31 (6.54) 128 (8.73)
Smoking, n (%)
 Never smokers 888 (55.88) 298 (62.87) 914 (62.35) 0.001
 Past smokers 285 (17.94) 63 (13.29) 231 (15.76)
 Current smokers 416 (26.18) 113 (23.84) 321 (21.90)
Alcohol drinking, n (%)
 Non-drinkers 710 (44.68) 280 (59.07) 796 (54.30) <0.001
 Light (0.1 ~ 15) 511 (32.16) 128 (27.00) 408 (27.83)
 Moderate (15.1 ~ 30) 172 (10.82) 35 (7.38) 127 (8.66)
 Heavy (>30) 196 (12.33) 31 (6.54) 135 (9.21)
Physical activity, MET-hours 19.97 ± 84.79 a 14.79 ± 55.67 a 16.54 ± 75.17 a 0.310
Total-cholesterol, mg/dl 194.10 ± 35.07 a 182.59 ± 32.94 b 185.25 ± 32.63 b <0.001
C-reactive protein, mg/dl 0.22 ± 0.41 a 0.18 ± 0.36 a 0.19 ± 0.32 a 0.032
Fasting Glucose, mg/dl 86.03 ± 16.33 a 81.66 ± 9.16 b 83.63 ± 14.07 c <0.001
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dl 45.92 ± 9.30 a 47.76 ± 10.46 b 47.20 ± 10.13 b <0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 116.74 ± 15.57 a 113.04 ± 13.99 b 114.42 ± 16.07 b <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 78.24 ± 10.41 a 74.90 ± 8.99 b 76.20 ± 10.30 c <0.001
Triglyceride, mg/dl 144.02 ± 87.86 a 122.57 ± 64.98 b 128.78 ± 70.38 b <0.001
  1. mean ± SD; If the mean difference was significant, Scheffe post hoc test was utilized for multiple comparisons
  2. Means with the same letter are indicated to be not significantly different