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Table 2 Quality assessment of individual studies

From: The use of traditional medicine in maternity care among African women in Africa and the diaspora: a systematic review

Author/ year of publication Study methods (5 points) Sampling (2 points) Participant characteristics (3 points) TM use (6 points) Total points awarded (Max = 16)
Recall bias (2 pts) (2 = low risk if data collection was prospective; 1 = some risk if data collection is retrospective within previous 12 months; 0 = high risk) Piloted questionnaire or interview schedule (1 pt) Address potential source of bias (1 pt) Adjust for potential confounders (1 pt) Response rate (1 pt) Representative sampling (1 pt) Specific diagnosis (1 pt) Indicator of socioeconomic status (0.5 pt) Age (0.5 pt) Ethnicity (0.5 pt) Gender (0.5 pt) TM definition (2 pts) Use of TM modalities assessed (1 pt) Frequency/duration of TM use (1 pt) Reasons for TM use (2 pts)
Banda et al., 2007 [26] 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0 0 0 5 (31.3%)
Bayisa et al., 2014 [27] 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 1 0 2 6 (37.5%)
Duru et al., 2016 [28] 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 1 0 0 7 (43.8%)
Elkhoudri et al., 2016 [29] 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 1 0 2 6.5 (40.6%)
Fakeye et al.,2009 [30] 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 1a 1 0 2 9.5 (59.4.6%)
Kaadaaga et al., 2014 [31] 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 1 0 2 9 (56.3%)
Lalego et al., 2016 [32] 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 1 0 0 5.5 (34.4%)
Mabina et al., 1997 [33] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 1 0 2 4.5 (28.1%)
Mbura et al., 1985 [42] 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 1 0 2 7.5 (46.9%)
Mothupi and Carol 2014 [7] 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 1a 1 0 0 5.5 (34.4%)
Mugomeri et al., 2015 [34] 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 2 1 0 2 7.5 (46.9%)
Mureye et al., 2012 [35] 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1a 1 1 0 8 (50%)
Nergard et al., 2015 [36] 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 1 1 2 6.5 (40.6%)
Nyeko et al., 2016 [37] 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 1 0 2 6.5 (40.6%)
Orief et al., 2014 [38] 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 1 0 2 5.5 (34.4%)
Rasch et al., 2014 [39] 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.5 0 1 0 2 4.5 (28.1%)
Sarmiento et al., 2016 [40] 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 4 (25%)
Tamuno et al., 2011 [41] 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 2 1 0 0 5.5 (34.4%)
  1. aStudies that explained the definition of TM or provided list of TM modalities to their participants