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Table 1 Summary of the quality of studies

From: The use of traditional medicine in maternity care among African women in Africa and the diaspora: a systematic review

Quality assessment items Brief description Points awarded Percentage/frequency of studies % (n) Reference
Study methods
 Recall bias Low risk Prospective data collection 2 - -
Some risk Retrospective data collection within previous 12 months 1 33.3 (6) [7, 26,27,28, 31, 42]
High risk Retrospective data collection not within previous 12 months 0 66.7 (12) [29, 30, 32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41]
 Piloted questionnaire (or interview schedule) Any pilot, feasibility, pretest, or previous use of study materials 1 61.1 (11) [28, 30,31,32, 34, 35, 37, 38, 40,41,42]
 Address potential sources of bias Report efforts to address nonresponsive bias or information bias 1 16.7 (3) [28, 30, 35]
 Adjust for potential confounders Any adjustment of confounders in analyses of variables associated with TM use 1 27.8 (5) [28, 31, 32, 37, 40]
Sampling
 Response rate Where response rate = (number of participants in the study/number of people invited to take part) × 100 1 44.4 (8) [7, 26, 29,30,31,32, 36, 40]
 Representative sampling strategy Any attempt to achieve a sample of participants that represents the larger population from which they were drawn (but cannot be a single center sample) 1 16.7 (3) [30, 35, 42]
Participant characteristics
 Specific diagnosis Report participants’ diagnoses 1 22.2 (4) [26, 29, 31, 39]
 Indicator of socioeconomic status Report participants’ socioeconomic status 0.5 83.3 (15) [7, 26,27,28,29,30, 32,33,34,35,36,37,38, 40, 41]
 Age Report participants’ ages 0.5 88.9 (16) [7, 26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38, 41, 42]
 Ethnicity Report participants’ ethnicity 0.5 27.8 (5) [26,27,28, 35, 42]
 Gender Report participants’ gender 0.5 100 (18) [7, 26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42]
TM use
 TM definition Information about the definition of TM/a list of TM modalities provided to participants 2 27.8 (5) [7, 30, 34, 35, 41]
 Use of TM modalities assessed Report the prevalence of use of specific TM modalities 1 88.9 (16) [7, 27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39, 41, 42]
 Frequency/duration of TM uses Report how often or for what duration the TM were/are used by study participants 1 11.1 (3) [35, 36, 42]
 Reasons for TM use Report the reasons for the use of TM by study participants 2 61.1 (11) [27, 29,30,31, 33, 34, 36,37,38,39, 42]