- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modulatory activities of leaves and bark extracts of Recinodindron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae) against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine volume 17, Article number: 168 (2017)
Recinodindron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant used in Africa, particularly in Cameroon to treat various ailments including bacterial infections. In this study, we evaluated the extracts of the leaves (RHL) and bark (RHB) of R. heudelotii for their antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modulating activities against 29 Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes.
The broth micro-dilution assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity, and the antibiotic resistance modulating effects of the plant extracts.
RHL displayed the most important spectrum of activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranging from 256 to 1024 μg/mL against 75.86% of the 29 tested bacteria strains while RHB was not active. RHL also showed killing effects with minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranging from 256 to 1024 μg/mL. The activities of tetracycline and kanamycin associated with RHL were improved on 88.89% and 77.78% of the tested MDR bacteria, at MIC/2 at MIC/4 respectively, with 2 to 16-folds decreasing of MIC. This suggests the antibiotic resistance modulating effects of these antibiotics.
The present study provides data indicating a possible use of the leaves extract of Recinodindron heudelotii alone or in association with common antibiotics in the fight against bacterial infections including those involving MDR bacteria.
Infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria constitute nowadays a real public health concern all over the world. These bacteria drastically reduced the efficacy of antibiotic arsenal, consequently, increasing the frequency of therapeutic failure and mortality [1, 2]. In the European Union, it was estimated that 25,000 patients die annually due to infections with MDR bacteria . Among these MDR bacteria, Gram-negative MDR bacteria drastically impair the efficacy of antibiotic families and consequently limit their clinical uses [4, 5]. Due to these facts, scientists are in the quest for new antimicrobial substances. Nature is a source of medicinal agents since times immemorial. The screening of plant extracts and natural products for their antimicrobial activity has shown that higher plants represent a potential source of novel antibiotic prototypes [6–8]. In the last decades, a number of studies conducted, demonstrated that plants as well as their derived products could possess direct antimicrobial activity and resistance modifying effects [9–14]. Thus, with increased incidence of resistance to antibiotics, natural products from plants could be an interesting alternative.
Recinodindron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex Pax. known as “Djansang or Essessang” in different area in Cameroon, is a tree belonging to Euphorbiaceae family. With 20–30 m of height, that plant grows throughout the humid lowland rainforest of Cameroon [15, 16]. This plant is traditionally used in Cameroon and certain countries in Africa to treat cough, intestinal disease, dysentery and as antidote [15, 17]. Furthermore, R. heudelotii is also used to ease delivery, treat diseases such as malaria, anaemia, stomach pain, yellow fever and as aphrodisiac. Its seeds are also used as food ingredient . R. heudelotii is well documented for some pharmacological properties among which antimicrobial [18, 19] and antioxidant activities . In the continuous search for antibacterial agents from that plant, we have designed this study to investigate the in vitro antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modulating activities of the methanol extracts from leaves and stem bark of R. heudelotii against MDR Gram-negative bacteria.
Plant materials and extraction
The leaves and bark of R. heudelotii were collected in April 2012 at Melong, Littoral-Cameroon. The plant was identified at the National Herbarium in Yaoundé (Cameroon), by a botanist under the registration number 19695 SRF/Cam. The dried and powdered material (100 g) of each plant was macerated in 300 mL of methanol for 48 h at room temperature, and then filtered using Whatman filter paper No.1. The filtrate obtained was concentrated using a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure to obtain the extracts, which were kept at 4 °C until usage.
Chemicals for antibacterial assays
Six antibiotics: tetracycline (TET), kanamycin (KAN), erythromycin (ERY), ciprofloxacin (CIP), chloramphenicol (CHL) and ampicillin (AMP) (Sigma-Aldrich, St Quentin Fallavier, France) were used. p-Iodonitrotetrazolium chloride 0.2% (INT) (Sigma-Aldrich) was used as bacterial growth indicator and dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) was used to dissolve the extracts.
Bacteria strains used and growth conditions
The microbial species used in the study were Gram-negative bacteria including MDR and reference strains of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Providencia stuartii. Their features were previously reported [14, 21]. All strains were cultured overnight on Mueller Hinton Agar 24 h prior to any assay. The Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) was used as liquid culture medium for susceptibility tests.
Evaluation of the antibacterial activity
The antibacterial activities of the extracts were determined using rapid INT colorimetric assay [22, 23]. Two fold serial dilution of the extract (dissolved in DMSO/MHB) were made in a 96-well microplate. Then, 100 μL of inoculums (1.5× 106 CFU/mL) prepared in MHB were then added. The plates were covered with a sterile plate sealer and then agitated with a shaker to mix the contents of the wells and incubated at 37 °C for 18 h. Wells containing MHB, 100 μl of inoculums and DMSO at a final concentration of 2.5% served as negative control (This internal control was systematically added). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), defined as the lowest sample concentration that prevented the growth of the bacteria was then detected after the addition of 40 μL of INT (0.2 mg/mL) in each well of the plates and incubated at 37 °C for 30 min. The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each sample was determined by adding 50 μL aliquots of the preparations which did not show any growth after incubation during MIC determination to 150 μL of MHB. These preparations were incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. MBC was regarded as the lowest concentration of sample that prevented the colour change of the medium after addition of INT as mentioned above .
To evaluate the extracts of R. heudelotii as a modulator of antibiotic resistance, MICs of antibiotics were determined in the absence and presence of these extracts using the broth micro-dilution method as previously described [24, 25]. Briefly, after serial dilutions of antibiotics (0.5–256 휇g/mL), the most active extract; RHL, was added to each well at its sub-inhibitory concentrations and the inoculation was done. The MIC was determined as described above. Rows receiving antibiotic dilutions without extracts were used for the determination of the MICs of the antibiotics. The modulation factor was defined as the ratio of the MIC for the antibiotic alone and that of the antibiotics in the presence of the extract (RHL). Modulation factor ≥ 2 was set as the cut-off for biologically significance of antibiotic resistance modulating effects .
Antibacterial activity of the plant extracts
The data summarized in Table 1 show that extracts tested were active on at least two bacteria with MIC values varying from 256 to 1024 μg/mL. Leaves extract of R. heudelotii (RHL) displayed the most important spectrum of activity with MICs ranging from 256 to 1024 μg/mL against 75.86% of the tested bacteria while its bark extract (RHB) was active only on tree bacterial strains. In general, RHL showed MICs below 625 μg/mL against 44.83% of the 29 tested bacteria. It’s lowest MIC (256 μg/mL) has been recorded on E. coli W3110 and Enterobacter aerogenes EA3. Chloramphenicol showed variable inhibitory activities depending on bacteria strains, with MICs below 10 μg/mL against 31.03% (9/29) of the tested bacteria. RHL also presented MBCs ranging from 256 to 1024 μg/mL.
Antibiotic resistance modulating effects of the plant extracts
The results of the pre-screening of the R. heudelotii extracts for their resistance modulating effects (Table 2) against MDR P. aeruginosa PA124, allowed us to select the leaves extract of R. heudelotii (RHL) at its sub-inhibitory concentrations (half and quarter of MIC) for the study of its antibiotic resistance modulating effects against selected MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Table 3 shows the antibacterial activity of six commonly used antibiotics in the presence of RHL against selected MDR Gram-negative bacteria. RHL has significantly improved the activity of TET, KAN and CHL against most of the tested bacteria at it sub-inhibitory concentrations. At MIC/2, it modulated in more than 70% of cases, the activity of TET and KAN (88.89%) and in 66.67% those of CHL. At MIC/4, RHL showed important modulating effects with TET and KAN, respectively on 77.78% and 66.67% of the tested bacteria. No modulating effect was noted with ampicillin in the presence of that extract.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the methanol extracts from the leaves (RHL) and bark (RHB) of R. heudelotii for their antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modulating activities against a panel of Gram-negative bacteria including multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. For phytochemical agents, MICs ranging from 100 to 1000 μg/mL obtained after susceptibility tests indicate their antimicrobial activities . Thus, leaves extract of R. heudelotii (RHL) displayed antibacterial activity against 75.86% of the tested bacteria whereas its bark extract (RHB) was not active. According to the cut-off value of MICs for extracts as proposed by Kuete , RHL presents moderate antibacterial activity (100 ≤ MIC ≤625 μg/mL) against the tested bacteria. A keen look the MICs and MBCs of RHL (Table 1) indicated that it possesses bactericidal or killing effects (MBC/MIC ≤4) . R. heudelotii bark extract was previously documented for its low antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacteria including Gram-negative and Gram-negative bacteria [18, 19]. This confirms low antibacterial activity observed with its bark methanol extract (RHB) in the present study. By considering the MDR features of the tested bacteria, RHL could be a source for the development of new antibacterial agents.
The antibiotic resistance modulating effects of the extracts or natural compounds from medicinal plants against resistant bacteria have been already reported [11, 13, 28–30]. In this work, the combination of extracts with antibiotics has shown that extract of the leaves of R. heudelotii (RHL) modulated 2 to 16 folds the activity of TET, KAN and CHL against selected MDR bacteria. Based on the previous work, one of the mechanisms of action of plant extracts associated with antibiotics may be the disruption of the membrane structure and the bacterium cell by the extract, increasing influx of antibiotics inside the bacteria . These actions are generally attributed to some terpenoids  and lipophilic flavonoids , which can cause a disruption of the plasma membrane of the microorganisms. The extracts or natural compounds can also exert their modulating effects by inhibiting bacterial efflux pumps, allowing an increase of the intracellular concentrations of the antibiotics [24, 32]. RHL has potentiated the activity of TET and KAN on more than 70% of the tested MDR bacteria. This suggests that some compounds of that extract may act as efflux pump inhibitors . View that it is the first time here to report the potential of the R. heudelotii leaves extract (RHL) to reverse antibiotic resistance in MDR bacteria, that plant extract could be used for the screening of antibiotic modulators, especially efflux pumps inhibitors.
Various classes of phytochemical compounds were previously found in the tested plant extracts . The most active extract (RHL) contained terpenoids and saponins absent in the bark extract (RHB). This suggests that the pronounced antibacterial activity as well as antibiotic-modulating effects of the leaves extract of R. heudelotii could be due to the presence of these metabolites.
In conclusion, this study have provided informative data about the antimicrobial potential of the tested plant extracts by suggesting that R. heudelotii methanol leaves extract could be a source of natural antibacterial products as well as that for antibiotics resistance modulators. This provides a new weapon against the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
colony forming unit
minimal bactericidal concentration
Mueller Hinton Broth
minimal inhibitory concentration
Phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide
- R. heudelotii :
Recinodindron heudelotii bark extract
Recinodindron heudelotii leaves extract
resistance nodulation cell division
Sociètè des Reserves Forestières du Cameroun
Rice LB. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009;12:476–81.
Kovač J, Šimunović K, Wu Z, Klančnik A, Bucar F, Možina SS. Antibiotic Resistance Modulation and Modes of Action of (−)-α-Pinene in Campylobacter jejuni. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122871.
ECDC/EMEA. The bacterial challenge: time to react, Joint Technical Report from ECDC and EMA,” Stockholm, Sweden. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control 2009; Available: http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/0909_TER_The_Bacterial_Challenge_Time_to_React.pdf. Accessed 28 April 2016.
Gandhi TN, De Pestel DD, Collins CD, Nagel J, Washer LL. Managing antimicrobial resistance in intensive care units. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(8):S315–23.
Chopra I, Schofield C, Everett M, O'Neill A, Miller K, Wilcox M, Frère J, Dawson M, Czaplewski L, Urleb U, Courvalin P. Treatment of health-care associated infections caused by gram-negative bacteria: a consensus statement. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:133–9.
Rahman MM, Alam AH, Sadik G, Islam MR, Khondkar P, Hossain MA, Rashid MA. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Achyranthes ferruginea. Fitoterapia. 2007;78(3):260–2.
Afolayan AJ. Extracts from the shoots of Arctotis artotoides inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Pharm Biol. 2003;41:22–5.
Kuete V. Potential of cameroonian plants and derived products against microbial infections: a review. Planta Med. 2010;76:1479–91.
Kuete V, Ngameni B, Tangmouo GJ, Bolla JM, Alibert-Franco S, Ngadjui TB, Pagès JM. Efflux pumps are involved in the defense of gram-negative bacteria against the natural products isobavachalcone and diospyrone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1749–52.
Bama SS, Kingsley SJ, Anan S, Bama P. Antibacterial activity of different phytochemical extracts from the leaves of T. procumbens: Identification and mode of action of the terpeniod compounds as antibacterials. Int J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2012;4(1):557–64.
Kovač J, Gavari N, Bucar F, Smole MS. Antimicrobial and resistance modulatory activity of Alpinia katsumadai seed extract, essential oil and post-distillation extract. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2014;52:248–54.
Fankam AG, Kuiate J-R, Kuete V. Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modifying activity of the extracts from Allanblackia gabonensis, Combretum molle and Gladiolus quartinianus against Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant phenotypes. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:206.
Tankeo S, Tane P, Kuete V. In vitro antibacterial and antibiotic potentiation activities of the methanol extracts from Beilschmiedia acuta, Clausena anisata, Newbouldia laevis and Polyscias fulva against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:412.
Seukep JA, Sandjo LP, Ngadjui BT, Kuete V. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts and compounds from Uapaca togoensis against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes. S Afr J Bot. 2016;103:1–5.
Kimbu SF, Keumedjio F, Sondengam LB, Connolly JD. Two dinorditerpenoids from Ricinodendron heudelotii. Phytochemistry. 1991;30(2):619–22.
Fondoun J, Tiki T, Kengue J. Recinodindron heudelotii (Djansang): ethnobotany and importance for forest dwellers in Southern Cameroon. Plant Genet Resour Newsl. 1999;118:1–6.
Noumi E, Yomi A. Medicinal plants used for intestinal diseases in Mbalmayo Region, Central Province. Cameroon Fitoterapia. 2001;72(3):246–54.
Momeni J, Djoulde RD, Akam MT, Kimbu SF. Chemical constituents and antibacterial activities of the stem bark extracts of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae). Indian J Pharm Sci. 2005;67(3):386–9.
Tekwu E, Pieme A, Beng V. Investigations of antimicrobial activity of some Cameroonian medicinal plant extracts against bacteria and yeast with gastrointestinal relevance. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;142(1):265–73.
Momeni J, Ntchatchoua WPDD, Fadimatou F, Akam MT, Ngassoum MB. Antioxidant activities of some cameroonian plants extracts used in the treatment of intestinal and infectious diseases. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(1):140–4.
Fankam AG, Kuiate JR, Kuete V. Antibacterial activities of selected Cameroonian spices and their synergistic effects with antibiotics against multidrug resistant phenotypes. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:104.
Eloff JN. A sensitive and quick microplate method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of plant extracts for bacteria. Planta Med. 1998;64:711–73.
Kuete V, Ngameni B, Fotso Simo CC, Kengap Tankeu R, Tchaleu Ngadjui B, Meyer JJM, Lall N, Kuiate JR. Antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts and compounds from Ficus chlamydocarpa and Ficus cordata (Moraceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;120(1):17–24.
Stavri M, Piddock LJV, Gibbons S. Bacterial efflux pumps 1inhibitors from natural sources. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59:1247–60.
Coutinho HDM, Costa JGM, Lima EO, Falcão-Silva VS, Júnior SJP. Herbal therapy associated with antibiotic therapy: potentiation of the antibiotic activity against methicillin – resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Turnera ulmifolia L. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009;9:13.
Simões M, Bennett RN, Rosa EA. Understanding antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals against multidrug resistant bacteria and biofilms. Nat Prod Rep. 2009;26:746–57.
Mims CA, Playfair JHL, Roitt IM, Wakelin D, Williams R. Antimicrobials and chemotherapy, In: Mims et al., editors. Medical Microbiology Review, Mosby Europe Ltd, London; 1993. p. 35:1–34.
Aiyegoro OA, Okoh AI. Use of Bioactive plant products in combination with Standard Antibiotics: Implications in antimicrobial chemotherapy. J Med Plants Res. 2009;3:1147–52.
Saleem M, Nazir M, Ali MS, Hussain H, Lee YS, Riaz N, Jabbar A. Antimicrobial natural products: an update on future antibiotic drug candidates. Nat Prod Rep. 2010;27:238–54.
Sibanda T, Okoh AI. The challenges of overcoming antibiotic resistance: Plant extracts as potential sources of antimicrobial and resistance modifying agents. Afr J Biotechnol. 2007;6:2886–96.
Tsuchiya H, Sato M, Miyazaki T, Fujiwara S, Tanigaki S, Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Iinuma M. Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of phytochemical flavanones against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;50:27–34.
Tegos G, Stermitz F, Lomovskaya O, Lewis K. Multidrug Pump Inhibitors uncover remarkable Activity of Plant Antimicrobials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:3133–41.
Braga LC, Leite AAM, Xavier KGS, Takahashi JA, Bemquerer MP, Chartone-Souza E, Nascimento AMA. Synergic interaction between pomegranate extract and antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus. Can J Microbiol. 2005;51:541–7.
Kuete V, Fankam AG, Wiench B, Efferth T. Cytotoxicity and modes of action of the methanol extracts of six Cameroonian medicinal plants against multidrug-resistant tumor cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:Article ID 285903.
Authors acknowledge the Cameroon National Herbarium (Yaoundé) for the plant identification.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are presented in this main paper. Plant material used in this study was identified at the Cameroon National Herbarium where voucher specimens are deposited.
AGF carried out the study; VK designed the experiments; AGF and VK wrote the manuscript; VK and JRK supervised the work; VK provided the bacterial strains; all authors read and approved the final manuscript.
There is no conflict of interest.
Consent for publication
Not applicable in this section.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Not applicable in this section.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Fankam, A.G., Kuiate, J. & Kuete, V. Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modulatory activities of leaves and bark extracts of Recinodindron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae) against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. BMC Complement Altern Med 17, 168 (2017) doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1687-2
- Recinodindron heudelotii, Gram-negative bacteria, MDR bacteria
- antibacterial activity
- antibiotic modulators