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Table 3 Descriptive statistics and univariable logistic regression analyses of adherence on psychological variables (n = 324)

From: Predicting adherence to acupuncture appointments for low back pain: a prospective observational study

  Descriptive statistics Regression results
f % M SD Odds Ratio 95% C.I. p
Lower Upper
Illness perceptions
LBP as threatening --- --- 47.63 10.73 0.99 0.97 1.01 .173
Consequences    6.82 2.11 1.00 0.91 1.11 .935
Timeline    7.78 2.18 0.97 0.88 1.07 .514
Personal control    4.54 2.33 1.03 0.94 1.13 .580
Treatment control    6.62 2.18 1.10 1.00 1.22 .058
Identity    6.95 1.86 0.89 0.79 1.00 .050
Concerns    7.86 1.96 0.99 0.88 1.10 .792
Comprehensible    6.83 2.57 1.08 0.99 1.18 .085
Emotional    6.21 2.46 1.01 0.93 1.11 .800
Caused by activities of daily living 120 37.0 --- --- 0.89 0.57 1.40 .627
Caused by work 140 43.2 --- --- 0.85 0.55 1.32 .460
Caused by accident/injury 123 38.0 --- --- 0.83 0.53 1.29 .405
Caused by aging/genes 92 28.4 --- --- 1.07 0.66 1.74 .777
Caused by disease 102 31.5 --- --- 1.06 0.66 1.70 .801
Fear avoidance– physical activity    14.54 5.52 0.98 0.94 1.02 .301
Fear avoidance– work    15.17 13.11 0.97 0.98 1.01 .599
Catastrophising    2.45 1.43 0.93 0.80 1.08 .351
Treatment beliefs
Expectancy --- --- 0.08 2.79 1.11* 1.02 1.21 .014
Holistic health --- --- 30.38 5.54 0.99 0.96 1.03 .785
Natural treatments --- --- 31.86 6.60 1.00 0.97 1.03 .988
Participation in treatment --- --- 26.85 4.88 1.05* 1.01 1.10 .030
Appraisals
Credibility of acupuncture --- --- 0.11 2.64 1.08* 1.00 1.17 .046
Acupuncturist --- --- 60.31 8.86 1.03* 1.00 1.06 .028
Change in disability         .112
No change a 49 15.1 --- ---     
Small deterioration 78 24.1 --- --- 1.28 0.63 2.62 .500
Moderate deterioration 16 4.9 --- --- 2.29 0.69 7.58 .174
Small improvement 108 33.3 --- --- 0.74 0.38 1.47 .393
Moderate improvement 73 22.5 --- --- 1.41 0.68 2.92 .353
Change in pain         .777
No change a 74 22.8 --- ---     
Small deterioration 50 15.4 --- --- 0.92 0.45 1.89 .827
Moderate deterioration 31 9.6 --- --- 1.07 0.46 2.47 .880
Small improvement 75 23.1 --- --- 1.34 0.70 2.56 .370
Moderate improvement 94 29.0 --- --- 0.92 0.50 1.69 .784
Change in Wellbeing         
No change a 67 20.7 --- ---     .637
Small deterioration 64 19.8 --- --- 1.50 0.75 2.99 .250
Moderate deterioration 69 21.3 --- --- 1.00 0.51 1.97 .994
Small improvement 62 19.1 --- --- 1.33 0.66 2.66 .422
Moderate improvement 62 19.1 --- --- 0.96 0.48 1.92 .911
Value for money 92 28.4 --- --- 1.55 0.95 2.52 .079
Not difficult to travel 184 56.8 --- --- 1.12 0.72 1.74 .607
Convenient appointments 106 32.7 --- --- 1.67* 1.04 2.67 .033
Not effortful to attend 219 67.6 --- --- 2.29** 1.42 3.70 .001
Not too expensive 118 36.4 --- --- 1.90** 1.20 3.01 .006
  1. Notes. *p < .05. **p < .01. a Reference category