- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Antitumor evaluation of two selected Pakistani plant extracts on human bone and breast cancer cell lines
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 5 November 2015
Accepted: 14 July 2016
Published: 26 July 2016
The medicinal plants Vincetoxicum arnottianum (VSM), Berberis orthobotrys (BORM), Onosma hispida (OHRM and OHAM) and Caccinia macranthera (CMM) are used traditionally in Pakistan and around the world for the treatment of various diseases including cancer, dermal infections, uterine tumor, wounds etc. The present study focuses on the investigation of the selected Pakistani plants for their potential as anticancer agents on human bone and breast cancer cell lines in comparison with non-tumorigenic control cells.
The antitumor evaluation was carried out on human bone (MG-63, Saos-2) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, BT-20) in contrast to non-tumorigenic control cells (POB, MCF-12A) via cell viability measurements, cell cycle analysis, Annexin V/PI staining, microscopy based methods as well as migration/invasion determination, metabolic live cell monitoring and western blotting.
After the first initial screening of the plant extracts, two extracts (BORM, VSM) revealed the highest potential with regard to its antitumor activity. Both extracts caused a significant reduction of cell viability in the breast and bone cancer cells in a concentration dependent manner. The effect of VSM is achieved primarily by inducing a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle and the stabilization of the actin stress fibers leading to reduced cell motility. By contrast BORM’s cytotoxic properties were caused through the lysosomal-mediated cell death pathway indicated by an upregulation of Bcl-2 expression.
The antitumor evaluation of certain medicinal plants presented in this study identified the methanolic root extract of Berberis orthobotrys and the methanolic extract of Vincetoxicum arnottianum as promising sources for exhibiting the antitumor activity. Therefore, the indigenous use of the herbal remedies for the treatment of cancer and cancer-related diseases has a scientific basis. Moreover, the present study provides a base for phytochemical investigation of the plant extracts.
Natural products have historically and continually been investigated for promising new leads in pharmaceutical development. Cancer is a major public health problem worldwide with millions of new cancer patients diagnosed each year and many deaths resulting from this disease. Chemotherapy remains the principal mode of treatment for various cancers. Researchers have focused on the anticancer activity of the plants because the medicinal plants are used in different countries for the treatment and prevention of cancer [1, 2]. For example, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used as an adjuvant therapy to alleviate cancer symptoms at the terminal stages when Western medicine treatments cannot offer any other treatment options [3, 4].
In Pakistan, as in other developing countries, traditional medicines are in widespread use; with the practitioners formulating and dispensing the recipes to their patients. The medicaments are prepared most often from a combination of two or more plant products which may contain active chemical constituents with multiple physiological and pharmacological activities and could be used in treating various disease conditions. The discovery of effective herbs and elucidation of their underlying mechanisms could lead to the development of an alternative and complementary method for cancer prevention and/or treatment. Based on an analysis of published literature, we selected four traditional Pakistani plants with medicinal value to evaluate their anticancer efficacy. In search of the target plant extracts for the development of anticancer drugs, here we have investigated Vincetoxicum arnottianum, Berberis orthobotrys, Onosma hispida and Caccinia macranthera of Pakistan origin.
Vincetoxicum arnottianum Wight (Syn: Cyanchum arnottianum Wight) is a perennial plant of the Apocynaceae family found in different parts of Pakistan including Hazara, Swat, Kaghan, Shinkiari, Kashmir etc. . The family Apocynaceae is one of the largest angiosperm family comprising 375 genera and over 5100 species. Plants of the family Apocynaceae have been reported to be extensively used for the treatment of the skin diseases, pimples , malaria, diabetes and diarrhea and most importantly some species have been used in cancer chemotherapy . Some species of Vincetoxicum have exhibited very high cytotoxicity against brine shrimps , antidiarrheal and antispasmodic , antibiotic , anti-inflammatory , antidiabetic and antioxidant  activities etc. Alkaloids are normally reported from various Vincetoxicum species [12, 13]. The plant V. arnottianum (syn. C. arnottianum) has been reported for the treatment of maggots in wounds of cattle, horses and sheep , wounds and injuries  etc.
Berberis orthobotrys Bien ex Aitch. is a shrub that belongs to the family Berberidaceae. Berberidaceae family comprises 13 genera and 650 species  and it is represented in Pakistan by 3 genera and 22 species. Various species of the genus Berberis are reported from different parts of Pakistan i.e. Gilgit, Baltistan, Chitral, Skardu, Astor etc. Hussain et al.  have studied the diversity and ecological characteristics of different plants including B. orthobotrys. Mokhber-Dezfuli et al.  and Srivastava et al.  have reviewed on the chemical and biological diversity in Berberis. The plant B. orthobotrys has been reported for the treatment of ulcer, stomach problems, kidney stones, uterine tumor, wounds , blood purification, jaundice, urine problem, diarrhea , gastrointestinal diseases  etc. Moreover the plant B. orthobotrys has revealed various biological activities including antihypertensive , cardiac depressant , antihyperlipidemic  etc. The chemical constituents that are reported from B. orthobotrys include alkaloids .
Onosma hispida Wall. ex G. Don. is a perennial herb of the Boraginaceae family found in different localities in Pakistan including Gilgit, Chitral, Baluchistan, Swat, Hazara etc. Kumar et al.  have reviewed the genus for its phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. The genus Onosma L. is one of the largest and most species-rich genera of the family Boraginaceae comprising more than 150 species [27–29]. O. hispida is used as a medicinal herb [30, 31] exhibiting various biological properties including antibacterial activity . The plant O. hispida has been reported to be used as blood purifier and for cuts, swells, wounds . And it has also been reported for the treatment of abdominal ulcers, hair problems, bladder and kidney stones and rheumatism , pneumonia, typhoid fever and also used for dyeing hairs . A number of chemical constituents including benzoic acid derivatives, apigenin derivatives, flavones and flavanone derivatives have been isolated from O. hispida .
Overview of the selected Pakistani plants used in this study
Vincetoxicum arnottianum Wight
Methanolic extract of the plant.
Wounds, Injuries, Maggots in wounds of cattle, horses etc.
Berberis orthobotrys Bien. ex Aitch.
Methanolic root extract of the plant.
Uterine tumor, wounds, gastrointestinal problems, ulcer, blood purification, jaundice, urine problem, diarrhea, antihypertensive, cardiac depressant, antihyperlipidemic etc
Methanolic extract of the flowers of the plant
Ethylacetate soluble oily substance extracted from the methanolic fruit extract of the plant.
n-hexane soluble oily substance extracted from the methanolic fruit extract of the plant.
Onosma hispida Wall. ex G. Don.
Methanolic root extract of the plant.
Wounds, cuts, swells, abdominal ulcer, antibacterial, blood purifier, hair problems, dying hair, bladder and kidney stones, rheumatism, pneumonia, typhoid fever etc.
Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant.
Caccinia macranthera (Banks & Sol.) Brand
Methanolic extract of the plant.
Dermal infections, liver disorders, dyspepsia, sedative, cough, expectorant, induction of phage production etc
Despite their widespread use, however, no scientific assessment for anticancer effect has been conducted in most cases. Considering their increasing recognition and consumption, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the anticancer potential of these plant extracts in the inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell death, metabolic alterations and structural modifications in human breast (MCF-7, BT-20) and bone (MG-63, Saos-2) cancer cell lines. As a kind of control, non-tumorigenic cell lines of the breast (MCF-12A) and bone (POB) were included in the screening.
Plant material collection and identification
Four plants were employed in the present study. Vincetoxicum arnottianum and Caccinia mancranthera were collected from Baluchistan (Pakistan) and Berberis orthobotrys and Onosma hispida were collected from Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) in 2014 (Table 1). The plants were identified by Dr. Sher Wali Khan and reference specimens were deposited at the Department of Biological Sciences, Karakoram International University, Pakistan.
Preparation of extracts
Each plant sample including the aerial part of V. arnottianum (VSM), root (BORM) and fruit (BOFM) parts of B. orthobotrys, root (OHRM) and aerial (OHAM) parts of O. hispida, and the aerial part of C. macranthera (CMM) were air dried in shade and mechanically ground to fine powder. The finely-powdered material of each plant was soaked in methanol for several days and extracted. The dried methanolic extracts were obtained by removing the methanol by evaporation under reduced pressure. Furthermore, the fruit extract (BOFM) of B. orthobotrys was fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction and yielding n-hexane soluble oily substance (BO-23) and ethylacetate soluble oily substance (BO-5). Finally, eight samples i.e. VSM, BORM, BOFM, BO-5, BO-23, OHRM, OHAM and CMM were obtained and used for further study. Then, 50 mg of each dry sample was dissolved in 1 ml DMSO, EtOH or MeOH for the antitumor activity tests.
For soaking and extraction purposes, the commercial grade solvents were used. For preparation of the samples for the antitumor activity, absolute ethanol, DMSO, and absolute methanol from Sigma Aldrich were employed.
Cell lines, culturing and treatment conditions
Human osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 (CRL-1427), Saos-2 (HTB-85) and human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 (ATCC: HTB-22), BT-20 (HTB-19) as well as non-tumorigenic human epithelial breast cell line MCF-12A (CRL-10782) were purchased from ATCC (http://www.lgcstandards-atcc.org/) under the given numbers. The human non-tumorigenic, primary osteoblast cells (POB) were chosen as control cells. Briefly, cells were isolated from the spongiosa of the femoral heads of patients undergoing primary total hip replacement. The samples were collected with patient agreement and approval by the Local Ethical Committee (registration number: A 2010-10). Human primary osteoblasts were already used and isolation procedure was already described . Except for MCF-12A, all other cell lines and the primary POB cells were cultivated in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (Invitrogen, Germany) with 10 % fetal bovine serum (PAN Biotech GmbH, Germany) and 1 % gentamycin (Ratiopharm, Germany). MCF-12A was grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium Ham’s F12 without phenol red (Invitrogen, Germany) containing 10 % horse serum (PAA Laboratories GmbH, Germany), the Mammary Epithelial Cell Growth Medium SupplementPack (PromoCell, Germany) including Bovine Pituitary Extract 0.004 nl/ml, Epidermal Growth Factor (recombinant human) 10 ng/ml, Insulin (recombinant human) 5 g/ml, Hydrocortisone 0.5 g/ml and 1 % gentamycin (Ratiopharm, Germany).
Prior treatment with the plant extract cells were adapted to phenol-red-free Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (PAA Laboratories GmbH, Germany) with 10 % charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum (PAN Biotech GmbH, Germany) for 48 h to avoid unspecific stimulation of endogenous hormones in the serum (assay medium). Treatment with plant extracts (final concentration 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) was carried out for 48 h in assay medium. As negative control substance the vehicle DMSO, ethanol or methanol (0.1 %) was used in the same manner.
Viability assay and calculation of IC50 values
MTS (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay to determine cell viability was performed according to manufactures protocol (CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay; Promega Corp., Madison, WI, USA). Briefly, cells were seeded in 96-well plates at a density of 2000 cells/well in 100 μl medium and left to attach for 24 h. Treatment with plant extracts at final concentrations of 1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml was carried out as described previously . In parallel, control approaches were carried out with medium only and 0.1 % of the solvent DMSO, EtOH or MeOH to calculate background absorbance. No background absorbance was obtained for the extracts and MTS in the absence of cells, as some extracts are capable of reducing the MTS. After an initial incubation for 24 h cells were assayed with MTS. Colorimetric changes were measured at 490 nm and raw data was transferred to Microsoft Excel and analyzed. At least 8 replicates corrected with the background absorbance were performed. Reduction of cell viability at each concentration was plotted as a dose response curve. The IC50 values were calculated using nonlinear regression to fit data to the dose–response.
Cell cycle analysis
Proliferation alterations as well as apoptosis induction under the exposure of the plant extracts were estimated by cell cycle analysis via flow cytometry (FACS Calibur, BD Biosciences) after propidium iodide (Roche Diagnostics, IN, USA) staining (50 mg/ml) of the cells as already described [47, 48]. For data acquisition and histogram preparation, the software FlowJo version 7.6.5 (Tree Star; www.flowjo.com) was used. A minimum of 15,000 ungated events were recorded. Doublets and clumps were excluded by gating on the DNA pulse width versus pulse area displays. For statistical evaluation, the sum of cells in S- and G2/M-phase was defined as proliferative events and the sub-G1-peak of the histogram as apoptotic ones.
Annexin V/PI apoptosis detection
Annexin-V detects the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner leaflets to the outer leaflets of the plasma membrane, which is a key feature of apoptotic cells, whereas PI detects necrotic cells with permeabilized plasma membrane. Labeling of early apoptotic and dead cells was performed according to the manufacturers’ instructions from the Alexa Fluor488 Annexin V/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Germany). Cells were treated with 100 μg/ml plant extract for 48 h. After treatment detached as well as adherent cells were washed twice with cold PBS. The cell pellet was resuspended in 100 μl of annexin binding buffer at a density of 1 × 106 cells per ml and incubated with 5 μl of Alexa488-conjugated Annexin-V and 5 μl of PI for 15 min at room temperature in the dark. 400 μl of 1× binding buffer was added to each sample tube, and the samples were immediately analyzed by flow cytometry. Histograms and statistics were designed with the software FlowJo Version 7.6.5.
For bright field as well as fluorescence microscopic imaging, cells were seeded on glass cover slips and cultured for 24 h. After treatment with plant extracts bright field images were obtained using Axio Scope A1 microscope and the software AxioVision Imaging Software Release 4.8.2. (Carl Zeiss, Germany). For fluorescence imaging cell were fixed with 4 % paraformaldehyde for 15 min, followed by three washings with PBS and then permeabilized with 0.1 % Triton X-100 for 15 min. After carefully washing, cells were incubated with 100 μl 6.6 μM Alexa Fluor594 phalloidin (Invitrogen, Germany) for 60 min in the dark at room temperature, washed again, counterstained with DAPI (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Germany) for 15 min. Finally, cell were washed four times with PBS and embedded in mounting medium. Lysosomes were labeled with LysoTracker® Green DND-26 (Molecular Probes, Carlsbad, CA, USA) following the protocol supplied. The other cell compartments: mitochondria (MitoTracker® Mitochondrion-Selective Probes Green FM), Golgi complex (BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide complexed to BSA), endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Tracker™ Green BODIPY® FL glibenclamide), neutral lipids (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene BODIPY® 493/503), all from Molecular Probes, Germany were labeled following the manufactures’ instructions. All fluorescence signals were investigated with an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM780, Carl Zeiss, Germany) equipped with a helium/neon-ion laser and a ZEISS 63 × oil immersion objectives. The confocal images (1024 × 1024 pixel) were optimized using the ZEN software (Carl Zeiss, Germany).
Scanning electron microscopy
For scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cells grown on glass cover slips were fixed with 2 % glutaraldehyde and 1 % PFA in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.3. After washes in 0.1 M phosphate buffer the cells were dehydrated with a graded series of ethanol and were processed for critical point drying using CO2 as intermedium (Emitech K850 critical point dryer, Emitech Ltd. Ashford, UK). The cover slips were mounted on SEM stubs with adhesive carbon tape (Plano, Wetzlar, Germany) and sputter-coated with a gold layer (approximately 15–20 nm thickness) using a Bal-Tec SCD004 sputter coater (Balzers Union Ltd., Balzers, Liechtenstein). Specimens were viewed in a field-emission SEM operated at 5 kV (Merlin VP compact, Carl Zeiss Microscopy, Jena, Germany) and images with a size of 1024 x 768 pixels were recorded. Morphometric measurements of cell body axis length and width were taken with the free line measurement tool on calibrated pictures imported into iTEM imaging software (Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions, Münster, Germany).
Mitochondrial O2-consumption as a measure for respiratory activity was determined by the Bionas® 2500 analyzing system combined with the metabolic chip Bionas DisocveryTM SC1000 equipped with Clark-type oxygen sensors. Prior experiments, chips were cleaned with 70 % ethanol for 10 min, washed with PBS and were adapted to the measurement medium for 5 min. Measurement medium was composed of DMEM without NaHCO3 (Invitrogen, Germany), 0.1 % charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum (PAN Biotech GmbH, Germany) and 1 % gentamycin (Ratiopharm, Germany), pH value 7.4 and sterile filtered. On each chip 2x106 cells were seeded and let them adhere over night at 37 °C and in 5 % CO2 so that 80 % sub-confluence on the sensor chips was reached. Bionas measurements were carried out with a pump rate of 56 ml/min . After an adaption phase of 2 h to the new culture conditions, extracellular oxygen consumption of MG-63 cells after application of 25 μg/ml BORM or VSM was measured continuously for 20 h. Thereafter the recovery status (measurement medium without plant extracts) of the cells was monitored for additional 24 h. Data sets were evaluated and normalized with the software Bionas15002 Data analyzerV1.07.
Migration and invasion
Influence on migration was conducted on MG-63 cells, pre-incubated in assay medium for 48 h adaption in 6-well plates (Greiner, Germany). A scratch wound was made by Ibidi culture inserts (μ-Dish 35 mm; Ibidi GmbH, Martinsried, Germany) following the instructors recommendations. When cell layers reached confluence, the culture insert was removed and cells were treated with VSM (25–50 μg/ml) extract or control (vehicle, DMSO). Gap closure was analyzed as described previously . Cell invasion assay was performed with the CytoSelect™ 24 –Well Cell Invasion Assay (Basement Membrane, Fluorometric Format) from Cell Biolabs, Inc., CA, USA. Briefly, 1x106 MG-63 cells with the plant extracts were seeded in the membrane insert for 48 h. Fluorescence of invaded cells was counted with a plate reader at 480/520 nm.
Western blotting procedure
The general steps of the Western blot procedure have been described previously . Briefly, after treatment with the plant extracts VSM and BORM for at least 48 h the cells were trypsinized, washed with PBS and lysed in ice-cold lysis buffer (Bio-Plex Cell Lysis Kit, Bio-Rad, USA). After SDS-PAGE, protein content per lane as well separation quality was controlled with the Criterion Stain FreeTM gel imaging system (Bio-Rad, Germany). For protein detection primary antibodies (PCNA: sc-56, from Santa Cruz, USA; BCL-2: B3170, from Sigma) were incubated overnight at 4 °C followed by labeling with a horseradish peroxidase (HPR)-conjugated secondary antibody (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark) for 1 h at room temperature. Protein signals were visualized by using SuperSignal West Femto Chemiluminescent Substrate (Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, USA). Band intensity was analyzed densitometrically with the Molecular Imager ChemiDoc XRS and Image Lab 3.0.1 software (Bio-Rad, USA). Protein detection was repeated at least three times with individually prepared cell lysates from independently passaged cells.
Every experiment was replicated three times with individually passaged cells and data sets were expressed as means ± standard deviations (SD). Statistical significance was determined by the unpaired one-way ANOVA or t-test (***P < 0.001, **P < 0.005, *P < 0.05).
Initial screening on cell viability
Influence on cell cycle phases of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells
Both, in the histogram and in the proliferation diagram is clearly evident that the extracts OHRM, VSM, BO-5 and BO-23 accelerate the cell number in the proliferative phases G2 and M. Only BORM caused a slight significant reduction in the proliferative phases (20 %). The number of apoptotic cells increased after treatment with 50 μg/ml of BOFM, VSM, CMM and BO-23, significantly. In summary, some of the plant extracts display an effect on the proliferative phases G2/M and S, but do not affect the sub-G1 phase. The DNA-histograms of the control treatments with medium, DMSO, EtOH and MeOH (final concentration: 0.1 μg/ml) are given in Additional file 1: Figure S1, showing no alterations in the cell cycle phases.
Concentration dependent effects of BORM and VSM
BORM induced linear concentration dependent effects on the osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and Saos-2 as well as on the breast cancer cell lines BT-20 and MCF-7 (Fig. 3). The highest concentration of 100 μg/ml reduced the cell viability by 60–80 % in all tumorigenic and control cells. However, in comparison with cancer cells, the control cells POB-110 and MCF-12A were not that strongly affected by BORM in concentrations below 50 μg/ml. This is confirmed by the calculation of the IC50 values: BORM exhibited the lowest values for BT-20 and Saos-2 (~60 and 34 μg/ml), indicating a pronounced cytotoxicity (Table 2). In contrast, VSM caused only a linear concentration dependent effect on the bone cancer cell lines MG-63 and Saos-2 leading to IC50 values of 62.53 and 57.09 μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 value for the control primary osteoblasts POB was significantly higher (515.76 μg/ml) indicating that VSM mediates a stronger cytotoxic impact on the bone cancer cell lines. The vitality of the non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell line MCF-12A was only minimally affected by VSM leading to a no calculable IC50 value. On the other hand VSM displayed moderate IC50 values for BT-20 and MCF-7 (132.67, 116.82). These results illustrate that the plant extract VSM has anti-tumor potential, primarily because the viability of the cancer cells is reduced and the influence on the non-tumorigenic control cells is low.
Morphological, cytoskeletal and cell compartment alterations
Influence on O2 consumption, motility and selected protein marker expression
In this study, eight samples from four Pakistani plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as anticancer agents in selected human bone and breast cancer cell lines in comparison with non-tumorigenic control cells via cell viability measurements, cell cycle analysis, live cell imaging and monitoring of metabolic as well as motility features. After the first initial screening, BORM and VSM revealed the highest potential with regard to its antitumor activity. Both extracts caused a significant reduction of cell viability in the breast and bone cancer cells. However, BORM also induced a strong reduction of cell viability in the primary osteoblasts (POB), as well as VSM lowered the cell vitality in the non-tumorigenic breast cell line MCF-12A. But, VSM caused no negative influence on POBs wherein the bone cancer cell lines were strongly influenced (Fig. 1). These results suggest that the therapeutic use of VSM particularly for the treatment of bone cancer would be possible. For the treatment of breast cancer the BORM extract may be suitable on the basis of the vitality studies. Because BORM caused only a marginal effect on the vitality of the control cell line MCF-12A and induces a significant vitality reduction in both, the estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and in the triple-negative cell line BT-20.
Subsequent cell cycle analysis revealed a substantial increase of the proliferative phases G2/M and S after exposure to 50 μg/mg VSM whereas BORM slightly lowered the proliferation (Fig. 2a-b; exemplarily illustrated at the bone cancer cell line MG-63). Although VSM especially increases the G2/M phase in MG-63 cells, a simultaneous increase in DNA strand breaks, to be mentioned in the sub-G1 phase (Fig. 2c), could be observed. This suggests that the VSM extract induces apoptotic changes which are often associated with elevated proliferation rates in order to obtain the cell layer. Another possibility is a G2/M arrest of the cell population similar to the effect of paclitaxel which stabilizes tubulin polymerization resulting in arrest in mitosis and apoptotic cell death .
So far, the obtained results imply that the extracts VSM and BORM mediate different cellular responses which lead to cytotoxic events. In order to identify these cellular mechanisms, dose-response curves were created first (Figs. 3 and 4). From these curves it can be concluded that both extracts exert concentration-dependent effects on both, breast as well as bone cancer cells. The calculated IC50 values (Table 2) show that VSM primarily affects the bone cancer cells and only minimally impaired the vitality of healthy osteoblasts. The IC50 values of BORM illustrate that this extract reduces the vitality of the breast cancer cell, predominantly. For the non-tumorigenic control cell line MCF-12A a considerably higher IC50 value was determined.
However, bright field, scanning electron and laser scanning microscopy observations revealed morphological and structural alterations of MG-63 osteoblastic cells after exposure to 100 μg/ml VSM or BORM (Fig. 6). In comparison to the control, VSM treated MG-63 cells exhibit a prolonged shape accompanied with reduced cell-cell contacts. F-actin staining revealed a strong induction of stress fiber formation through the entire cells. Along with the reduced cell viability, the mediated G2/M arrest in the cell cycle phases and increased actin fiber formation can be assumed that the VSM extract causes a stabilization of the tumor cells, thus causing the cytotoxic properties. In contrast, the BORM extract promotes the formation of vesicle-like structures in the cell which can be due to a stimulation of the lysosomal activity or aggregation of lysosomal vesicles. Even at low concentration (1–10 μg/ml BORM) an increased formation of lysosomes was observed (Fig. 7). The higher the BORM concentrations, the greater the expansion of the lysosomal compartments. At the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) the lysosomes are large clusters around the nucleus (Fig. 7). This means that the cytotoxic effect of BORM is due to the activation of lysosomes which can selectively activate programmed cell death . Briefly, lysosomal ROS generation can cause lysosomal membrane permeabilization, whereby lysosomal cathepsins, as well as other hydrolytic enzymes, are released from the lysosomal lumen to the cytosol, and can trigger programmed cell death [55, 56]. In addition, BORM caused a stronger granularisation and formation of Golgi vesicles as well as a diffuse distribution of neutral lipids. This is not surprising, because it is thought that the reservoir of chemicals in the lysosome can be ‘topped up’ by supplies from the Golgi apparatus. The chemicals are manufactured in the endoplasmic reticulum, modified in the Golgi apparatus and transported to the lysosomes in vesicles (sealed droplets). Modification in the Golgi apparatus includes ‘destination labeling’ at a molecular level ensuring that the vesicle is delivered to a lysosome and not to the plasma membrane or elsewhere. The ‘label’ is returned to the Golgi apparatus for re-use (http://bscb.org/ Society for Cell Biology.org). This suggests that BORM primarily affects cell metabolism by the disruption of lysosomal function and thus initiating cell death. This view is supported by the changes in the apoptotic signaling cascades, i.e. the upregulation of Bcl-2 expression and further confirmed by a nearly complete reduction of mitochondrial O2 consumption (Fig. 8). Although the treatment with VSM also resulted in a significant reduction in respiration rate, the underlying mechanisms are different. Because of the stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton, the MG-63 cells are limited in their motility and can no longer divide, so that a G2/M arrest is forced.
In this study two Pakistani plant extracts, namely VSM and BORM could be identified as potential anti-tumor agents at least on the bone and breast cancer cell lines in vitro. The mechanism of action of VSM is achieved by a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and the stabilization of the cell by increased actin stress fiber formation. The antitumor effect of BORM is mediated by activating the lysosomal induced cell death pathway. However, both plant extracts exhibit strong cytotoxic potential in a concentration dependent manner. In this case VSM displayed the least impact on primary osteoblast functioning as non-tumorigenic cells whereas BORM showed the lowest cytotoxic effect on the mammary control cell line. Therefore, based on these results, we can postulate that VSM can be of interest for the treatment of bone tumors and BORM for the treatment of breast cancer. To prove this assertion, future work is on the identification of potential antitumor ingredients of these extracts and the evaluation of the dose-response relationships, in vitro and in vivo.
ANOVA, one-way analysis of variance; Bcl-2/BCL-2, B-cell lymphoma 2; BORM, Berberis orthobotrys roots; BOFM, Berberis orthobotrys fruits; BO-5, ethylacetate soluble oily substance of Berberis orthobotrys fruits; BO-23, n-hexane soluble oily substance of Berberis orthobotrys fruits; CMM, Caccinia macranthera aerial part; DAPI, 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; DNA, Deoxyribonucleic acid; EtOH, ethanol; IC50, inhibitory concentration of 50 % population; MeOH, methanol; MTS, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium; OHRM, Onosma hispida roots; OHAM, Onosma hispida aerial parts; PCNA, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PI, propidium iodide; POB, primary osteoblast cells; SEM, standard error of mean or scanning electron microscopy; TCM, Traditional Chinese medicine; VSM, Vincetoxicum arnottianum
We wish to express thanks to Prof. V. U. Ahmad for providing the plant extracts (VSM & CMM). Moreover Prof. P. Langer is highly acknowledged for inviting IA to his sophisticated chemical labs.
We would like to thank the BMBF habilitation scholarship program of the University of Rostock for the funding of Nadja Engels work.
Availability of data and materials
The data sets supporting the conclusions of this article are presented in this main paper. Plant materials used in this study have been identified by Dr. Sher Wali Khan and reference specimens were deposited at the Department of Biological Sciences, Karakoram International University, Pakistan. The supporting materials can be obtained upon request via email to the corresponding author.
Cell biological experimental work was done by NE, AA and MF. Plant collection, extraction preparation and chemical studies were performed by IA, AD, SA, VUA. The first draft of the paper was written by NE, IA, AA, and BN and reviewed by PL, VUA. All authors participated in the design of the study data, read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Madhuri S, Pandey G. Some anticancer medicinal plants of foreign origin. Curr Sci. 2009;96:779–83.Google Scholar
- Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Plants as a source of anti-cancer agents. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;100(1-2):72–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ling CQ, Yue XQ, Ling C. Three advantages of using traditional Chinese medicine to prevent and treat tumor. J Integr Med. 2014;12(4):331–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhai XF, Chen Z, Li B, Shen F, Fan J, Zhou WP, Yang YK, Xu J, Qin X, Li LQ, Ling CQ. Traditional herbal medicine in preventing recurrence after resection of small hepatocellular carcinoma: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. J Integr Med. 2013;11(2):90–100.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nasir E, Ali SI (eds) 1980-2005 Flora of Parkistan. Department of Botany. University of Karachi. Karachi: Karachi University Printing Press.Google Scholar
- Rana MS, Samant SS. Diversity, indigenous uses and conservation status of medicinal plants in Manali wildlife sanctuary, north western Himalaya. Ind J Trad Knowl. 2011;10:439–59.Google Scholar
- Middleton DJ. Apocynaceae (subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae), Flora Malesiana, ser. I, seed plants. Vol. 18. Leiden: The National Herbarium of the Netherlands. p. 474.Google Scholar
- Shah AJ, Zaidi MA, Sajjad H, Hamidullah, Gilani AH. Antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Vincetoxicum stocksii are mediated through calcium channel blockade. Bangladesh J. Pharmacol. 2011;6:46-50.Google Scholar
- Mogg C, Petit P, Cappuccino N, Durst T, McKague C, Foster M. Tests of the antibiotic properties of the invasive vine Vincetoxicum rossicum against bacteria, fungi and insects. Biochem Systemat Ecol. 2008;36:383–91.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Estakhr J, Javadian F, Ganjali Z, Dehghani M, Heidari A. Study on the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of Cynanchum acutum. Curr Res J Bio Sc. 2012;4:630–2.Google Scholar
- Fawzy GA, Abdallah HM, Marzouk MSA, Soliman FM, Sleem AA. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of major flavonoids of Cynanchum acutum L. (Asclepiadaceae) growing in Egypt. Z Naturforsch. 2008;63:658–62.Google Scholar
- Staerk D, Nezhad KB, Asili J, Emami SA, Ahi A, Sairafianpour M, et al. Phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids from Vincetoxicum pumilum. Biochem Systemat Ecol. 2005;33:957–60.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gibson DM, Krasnoff SB, Biazzo J, Milbrath L. Phytotoxicity of antofine from invasive swallow-worts. J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:871–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beigh SY, Nawchoo IA, Iqbal M. Traditional veterinary medicine among the tribes of Kashmir Himalaya. J Herbs Spices Med Plants. 2004;10:121–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zaidi MA, Crow Jr SA. Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;96:331–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hussain F, Shah SM, Badshah L, Durrani MJ. Diversity and ecological characteristics of flora of Mastuj valley, district Chitral, Hindukush range, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2015;47:495–510.Google Scholar
- Mokhber-Dezfuli N, Saeidnia S, Gohari AR, Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi M. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Berberis species. Pharmacogn Rev. 2014;8:8–15.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Srivastava S, Srivastava M, Misra A, Pandey G, Rawat AKS. A review on biological and chemical diversity in Berberis (Berberidaceae). EXCLI J. 2015;14:247–67.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Khan SW, Khatoon S. Ethnobotanical studies on useful trees and shrubs of Haramosh and Bugrote valleys in Gilgit, northern areas of Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2007;39:699–710.Google Scholar
- Noor A, Khatoon S, Ahmed M, Razaq A. Ethnobotanical study on some useful shrubs of Astore valley, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Bangladesh J Bot. 2014;43:19–25.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abbas Q, Khan SW, Khatoon S, Hussain SA, Hassan SN, Hussain A, et al. Floristic biodiversity and traditional uses of medicinal plants of Haramosh valley Central Karakoram National Park of Gilgit district, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. J Bio Env Sci. 2014;5:75–86.Google Scholar
- Alamgeer MS Akhtar, Jabeen Q, Akram M, Khan HU, Karim S, Malik MNH, et al. Antihypertensive activity of aqueous-methanol extract of Berberis orthobotrys Bien. Ex. Aitch. in rats. Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 2013;12:393-399.Google Scholar
- Alamgeer MS Akhtar, Jabeen Q, Bashir S, Malik MNH, Karim S, Mushtaq MN, et al. Possible mechanism of cardiac depressant activity of Berberis orthobotrys roots in isolated rabbit heart. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica – Drug Research 2014a;71:667-675.Google Scholar
- Alamgeer, Ghuffar A, Ahmad T, Mushtaq MN. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Berberis orthobotrys in hyperlipidemic animal models. Bangladesh J. Pharmacol. 2014b;9:377-382.Google Scholar
- Hussain SF, Khan L, Sadozai KK, Shamma M. New alkaloids from Berberis orthobotrys. J Nat Prod. 1981;44:274–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kumar N, Kumar R, Kishore K, Onosma L. A review of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology. Pharmacogn Rev. 2013;7:140–51. and references therein.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Al-Shahbaz I. The genera of Boraginaceae in the Southeastern United States. J Arnold Arbor Suppl. 1991;1:1–169.Google Scholar
- El-Shazly A, Abdel-Ghani A, Wink M. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Onosma arenaria (Boraginaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol. 2003;31:477–85.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kolarcik V, Zozomova-Lihova J, Martonfi P. Systematics and evolutionary history of the Asterotricha group of the genus Onosma (Boraginaceae) in central and southern Europe inferred from AFLP and nrDNA ITS data. Pl Systemat Evol. 2010;290:21–45.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahmad H, Khan SM, Ghafoor S, Ali N. Ethnobotanical study of upper Siran. J Herbs Spices Med Pl. 2009;15:86–97.Google Scholar
- Sher H, Elyemeni M, Hussain K, Sher H. Ethnobotanical and economic observations of some plant resources from the northern parts of Pakistan. Ethnobot Res Appl. 2011;9:027–41.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Naz S, Ahmad S, Ajaz RS, Asad SS, Siddiqi R. Antibacterial activity directed isolation of compounds from Onosma hispidum. Microbiol Res. 2006;161:43–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sharma PK, Thakur SK, Manuja S, Rana RK, Kumar P, Sharma S, et al. Observations on traditional phytotherapy among the inhabitants of Lahaul valley through Amchi System of Medicine – A cold desert area of Himachal Pradesh in North Western Himalayas, India. Chin Med. 2011;2:93–102.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gairola S, Sharma J, Bedi YS. A cross-cultural analysis of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh (India) medicinal plant use. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;155:925–86. and references therein.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khan SW, Khatoon S. Ethnobotanical studies on some useful herbs of Haramosh and Burgote valleys in Gilgit, northern areas of Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2008;40:43–58.Google Scholar
- Czerepanov, SK. Sosud. Rast. SSSR. Leningrad: Nauka, Leningradskoe Otd-nie. p. 509.Google Scholar
- Ghorbani AB, Mosaddegh M, Naghibi F. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmaceutical study of Tturkmens of Golestan and Khorasan provinces, north of Iran. Ir J Pharmaceut Res. 2004;2:20.Google Scholar
- Sahranavard S, Naghibi F, Mosaddegh M, Esmaeili S, Sarkhail P, Taghvaei M, et al. Cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from Iran and phytochemical evaluation of the most potent extract. Res Pharmaceut Sc. 2009;4:133–7.Google Scholar
- Amiri MS, Joharchi MR. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2013;3:254–71.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Asl MB, Talebpour A, Alijanpour R. Introducing of medicinal plants in Maragheh, Eastern Azerbaijan Province (Northwestern Iran). J Med Pl Res. 2012;6:4208–20.Google Scholar
- Stapf MNS. Neotropical Boraginaceae. In: Milliken, W. Klitgård, B. & Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Boraginaceae.htm (accessed on 3 May 2015).
- Taghvaei M, Naghibi F, Mosaddegh M, Moazzami N, Ghorbani A, Fakhari A. Prophage induction in Escherichia coli K-12(λ) by some plants from Iran. Ethno-Med. 2009;3:57–9.Google Scholar
- Arora HRK, Arora RB. Pharmacological investigation of the glucoside and aglucone isolated from Caccinia glauca. J Pharm Sci. 1962;51:1040–2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Siddiqi MA, Suri KA, Suri OP, Atal CK. A new pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Caccinia glauca. Phytochem. 1978;17:2049–50.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ayengar KNN, Rangaswami S. Structure of caccigenin, a new triterpenoid sapogenin from Caccinia glauca Savi. Tetrahed Lett. 1966;7:1947–52.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lüthen F, Lange R, Becker P, Rychly J, Beck U, Nebe JG. The influence of surface roughness of titanium on beta1- and beta3-integrin adhesion and the organization of fibronectin in human osteoblastic cells. Biomaterials. 2005;26(15):2423–40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Engel N, Falodun A, Kühn J, Kragl U, Langer P, Nebe B. Pro-apoptotic and anti-adhesive effects of four African plant extracts on the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. BMC Compl Alt Med. 2014;14:334.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Engel N, Oppermann C, Falodun A, Kragl U. Proliferative effects of five traditional Nigerian medicinal plant extracts on human breast and bone cancer cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:1003–10.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Engel N, Kraft K, Müller P, Duske K, Kühn J, Oppermann C, Nebe B. Actin cytoskeleton reconstitution in MCF-7 breast cancer cells initiated by a native flax root extract. Adv Med Plant Res. 2015;3(3):92–105.Google Scholar
- Engel N, Lisec J, Piechulla B, Nebe B. Metabolic profiling reveals sphingosine-1-phosphate kinase 2 and lyase as key targets of (phyto-) estrogen action in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and not in MCF-12A. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47833. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047833.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pautke C, Schieker M, Tischer T, Kolk A, Neth P, Mutschler W, et al. Characterization of osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63, Saos-2 and U-2 OS in comparison to human osteoblasts. Anticancer Res. 2004;24:3743–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neve RM, Chin K, Fridlyand J, Yeh J, Baehner FL, Fevr T, et al. A collection of breast cancer cell lines for the study of functionally distinct cancer subtypes. Cancer Cell. 2006;10:515–27.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wahl AF, Donaldson KL, Fairchild C, Lee FY, Foster SA, Demers GW, et al. Loss of normal p53 function confers sensitization to Taxol by increasing G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Nat Med. 1996;2(1):72–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hamacher-Brady A, Stein HA, Turschner S, Toegel I, Mora R, Jennewein N, et al. Artesunate activates mitochondrial apoptosis in breast cancer cells via iron-catalyzed lysosomal reactive oxygen species production. J Biol Chem. 2011;286(8):6587–601.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boya P, Kroemer G. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cell death. Oncogene. 2008;27(50):6434–51.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu Z, Wang Y, Zhao S, Zhang J, Wu Y, Zeng S. Imidazole inhibits autophagy flux by blocking autophagic degradation and triggers apoptosis via increasing FoxO3a-Bim expression. Int J Oncol. 2015;46(2):721–31. doi:10.3892/ijo.2014.2771.PubMedGoogle Scholar