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Table 1 Population characteristics by days missed from job/business due to illness or injury

From: Complementary and alternative medicine use and absenteeism among individuals with chronic disease

  Total Days missed from job or business p-valuea
   0 days 1 to 2 days 3 to 5 days 6+ days  
  n (weighted %) n (weighted %) n (weighted %) n (weighted %) n (weighted %)  
Days missed       
 0 days 4781 (46.9)      
 1 to 2 days 2199 (22.1)      
 3 to 5 days 1898 (19.2)      
 6+ days 1296 (11.8)      
Chronic conditionb       
 High Cholesterol 4781 (47.7) 2328 (49.2) 1033 (48.6) 823 (43.4) 597 (47.0) 0.03
 Arthritis 3519 (35.2) 1485 (32.5) 767 (34.1) 616 (32.3) 651 (52.7) <0.0001
 Hypertension 3191 (31.2) 1526 (31.4) 645 (28.1) 545 (29.8) 475 (38.3) 0.47
 Cancer 1167 (11.9) 560 (12.4) 245 (11.7) 200 (10.5) 162 (12.3) 0.35
 Depression 1716 (16.8) 562 (11.2) 366 (17.7) 351 (17.4) 437 (36.3) <0.0001
 Diabetes 1203 (11.2) 593 (12.3) 222 (9.7) 187 (8.3) 201 (14.1) 0.10
 Asthma 824 (7.9) 277 (5.8) 171 (7.5) 177 (9.1) 199 (15.1) <0.0001
 Hepatitis 489 (4.2) 255 (4.6) 98 (3.9) 91 (4.3) 45 (3.4) 0.24
 Coronary heart disease 253 (2.7) 130 (2.9) 46 (2.4) 26 (1.3) 51 (4.3) 0.55
 COPD 192 (1.7) 80 (1.7) 45 (1.9) 38 (1.5) 29 (2.1) 0.93
 Substance Abuse 145 (1.6) 69 (1.8) 25 (1.3) 22 (1.2) 29 (1.9) 0.17
 Kidney Disease 141 (1.3) 53(1.0) 17 (0.7) 26 (1.6) 45 (3.2) 0.02
Race/Ethnicity       
 White 7022 (76.5) 3223 (75.7) 1615 (79.3) 1220 (77.0) 964 (74.3) ref
 African American 1140 (8.9) 532 (9.0) 207 (7.3) 183 (8.0) 218 (12.1) 0.87
 Hispanic 1310 (9.8) 652 (10.1) 235 (8.5) 230 (10.3) 193 (10.0) 0.85
 Asian/Other 702 (4.8) 374 (5.2) 142 (4.8) 106 (4.7) 80 (3.6) 0.30
Agec       <0.0001
 18-24 955 (9.9) 428 (9.2) 220 (10.6) 162 (11.0) 145 (10.2)  
 25-34 1462 (14.0) 580 (11.7) 331 (15.9) 319 (16.7) 232 (15.5)  
 35-44 1998 (19.2) 839 (17.6) 472 (20.2) 359 (20.5) 328 (21.3)  
 45-54 2693 (26.7) 1294 (12.7) 569 (26.4) 441 (25.7) 389 (26.4)  
 55-65 3066 (30.2) 1640 (34.3) 607 (26.9) 458 (26.1) 361 (26.6)  
Gender       
 Male 4419 (44.4) 2205 (47.3) 961 (44.9) 689 (40.7) 564 (38.6) ref
 Female 5755 (55.6) 2576 (52.7) 1238 (55.1) 1050 (59.3) 891 (61.4) <0.0001
Household income       
 <$35,000 2000 (18.2) 961 (18.8) 368 (15.2) 349 (18.7) 322 (20.1) ref
 $35,000-$74,999 3255 (33.2) 1444 (31.6) 722 (34.2) 574 (33.4) 515 (36.7) 0.25
 $75,000-$99,999 1621 (16.2) 743 (15.5) 383 (18.0) 268 (15.9) 227 (16.1) 0.75
 $100,000+ 2879 (32.4) 1426 (34.1) 624 (32.5) 482 (32.0) 347 (27.1) 0.57
Education       
 Did not complete high school 858 (7.3) 455 (8.2) 142 (5.4) 133 (7.0) 128 (8.0) ref
 High school diploma or GED 2388 (23.3) 1176 (24.4) 478 (21.5) 376 (21.3) 358 (24.4) 0.65
 Associate's degree/some college 3538 (34.8) 1610 (34.1) 753 (33.8) 621 (36.7) 544 (36.1) 0.29
 Bachelor's degree 2102 (21.6) 962 (21.2) 527 (24.9) 346 (20.6) 267 (19.2) 0.58
 Advanced degree 1248 (13.0) 553 (12.1) 282 (14.4) 260 (14.5) 153 (12.3) 0.24
BMIc       0.001
 Underweight 56 (0.6) 16 (0.4) 7 (0.2) 10 (0.6) 23 (2.0)  
 Normal 2471 (28.9) 1235 (29.7) 546 (29.7) 388 (27.6) 302 (25.9)  
 Overweight 3571 (41.4) 1769 (43.2) 771 (41.6) 598 (40.5) 433 (35.5)  
 Obese 2531 (29.1) 1119 (26.6) 555 (28.6) 443 (31.3) 414 (36.6)  
Marital status       
 Single 2831 (28.0) 1266 (26.4) 573 (27.0) 519 (29.9) 473 (32.9) ref
 Married 5731 (56.8) 2810 (59.5) 1301 (59.2) 921 (53.0) 699 (48.1) 0.0001
 Divorced/Separated 1390 (13.3) 591 (11.9) 289 (12.4) 267 (15.5) 40 (16.4) 0.16
 Widowed 202 (1.9) 99 (2.1) 35 (1.4) 28 (1.6) 1455 (2.6) 0.66
Smoking status       
 Never 5688 (55.1) 2716 (54.6) 126 (56.2) 988 (56.8) 748 (52.9) ref
 Former 2546 (26.3) 1210 (27.7) 577 (26.3) 396 (23.6) 363 (25.0) 0.06
 Current 1922 (18.6) 846 (17.7) 381 (17.5) 354 (19.6) 341 (22.1) 0.51
Alcohol consumptiond       
 Abstainer 4230 (39.9) 2054 (41.1) 851 (36.7) 739 (40.7) 586 (39.6) ref
 Light Drinker 3487 (36.2) 1539 (34.2) 793 (38.9) 622 (36.4) 533 (38.5) 0.04
 Moderate Drinker 1766 (17.8) 856 (18.7) 409 (18.0) 282 (17.0) 219 (15.4) 0.08
 Heavy Drinker 613 (6.1) 288 (6.0) 129 (6.5) 89 (5.8) 107 (6.5) 0.55
Chronic conditionsc       0.0004
 1 5542 (53.8) 2759 (56.4) 1231 (55.2) 924 (53.0) 637 (43.4)  
 2 2740 (27.5) 1261 (26.9) 606 (28.4) 457 (27.0) 416 (28.9)  
 3+ 1892 (18.7) 770 (16.7) 362 (16.4) 35 (20.0) 402 (27.7)  
Surgery in past 12 months       <0.0001
 No 4370 (90.4) 4370 (90.4) 1930 (87.7) 1493 (84.5) 877 (61.5)  
 Yes 410 (9.6) 410 (9.6) 269 (12.3) 246 (15.5) 576 (38.5)  
Paid sick days       <0.0001
 No 6247 (62.5) 2528 (54.4) 1512 (68.8) 1228 (71.7) 979 (68.4)  
 Yes 3873 (37.5) 2213 (45.6) 683 (31.2) 503 (28.3) 474 (31.6)  
General health       
 Excellent 2464 (25.3) 1265 (27.0) 538 (27.7) 399 (23.3) 262 (18.0) ref
 Very good 3585 (35.6) 1707 (36.0) 825 (36.2) 566 (34.6) 487 (34.4) 0.22
 Good 3086 (29.9) 1372 (28.7) 641 (28.5) 568 (31.4) 505 (34.1) 0.005
 Fair/Poor 1033 (9.2) 432 (8.2) 195 (7.7) 205 (10.7) 201 (13.4) 0.0002
Health insurance       
 No 8690 (86.8) 3983 (84.6) 1931 (88.9) 1687 (90.2) 1089 (85.8) ref
 Yes 1484 (13.2) 798 (15.4) 268 (11.1) 211 (9.8) 207 (14.2) 0.005
Number of employees       
 0 to 9 2568 (25.6) 1449 (31.1) 511 (24.1) 311 (17.9) 297 (18.8) ref
 10 to 249 2368 (23.8) 1065 (22.8) 517 (24.1) 462 (27.2) 324 (22.6) 0.0001
 50 to 249 2309 (22.9) 954 (20.5) 574 (24.7) 427 (25.0) 354 (25.8) <0.0001
 249 to 9999 1233 (12.7) 529 (11.7) 261 (12.5) 235 (13.5) 208 (15.5) 0.000.
 1000+ 1435 (14.9) 627 (14.0) 304 (14.6) 263 (16.3) 241 (17.2) <0.0001
Class of worker       
 Private company 7294 (72.5) 3471 (73.7) 1629 (74.3) 1230 (71.3) 964 (66.7) ref
 Government 1879 (18.0) 666 (13.4) 421 (18.4) 409 (22.7) 383 (27.0) 0.06
 Self-employed 953 (9.6) 615 (12.9) 141 (7.3) 96 (5.9) 101 (6.3) 0.003
Reasons for CAM useb       
 General wellness 3140 (47.0) 1439 (45.9) 667 (21.5) 6120 (20.4) 424 (12.3 0.75
 Improve energy 1610 (24.0) 713 (44.5) 337 (22.0) 326 (20.7) 234 (12.8) 0.15
 Improve immune function 1228 (18.0) 566 (44.4) 247 (21.4) 237 (21.4) 178 (12.7) 0.11
 Improve athletic/sports performance 803 (12.0) 371 (44.7) 160 (20.2) 146 (20.2) 126 (14.9) 0.55
 Improve memory/concentration 758 (12.0) 328 (42.5) 171 (23.7) 147 (21.6) 112 (12.2) 0.06
  1. aChi-square test for strength of association (α = 0.10)
  2. aT- test for strength of association for age, BMI (p ≤ 0.10)
  3. Significance for p-values was set at 0.05
  4. bGroups not exclusive
  5. cModeled as continuous variable
  6. aT- test for strength of association for chronic conditions (p ≤ 0.10)
  7. dBased off the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans [29]